• Message from Prosecuting Attorney
  • The Death Penalty In The U.S.
  • Clark County Cases
  • Capital Punishment Timeline
  • Current Indiana Death Row
  • U.S. Executions Since 1976
  • Indiana Death Row 1977-2008
  • Methods of Execution
  • Indiana Executions Since 1900
  • Public Opinion Polls
  • Indiana Death Row Statistics
  • Updates after April 1, 2008
  • Indiana Death Penalty Laws
  • 1000+ Death Penalty Links


  • Best 30 Death Penalty Websites (Top 1%)
    Pro-Death Penalty
    General Reference, Directories & Links
    Pro & Con: Articles, Essays, & Argument
    History of Capital Punishment
    Execution and Death Row Statistics
    Legal Research / Capital Defense
    Public Defenders
    Prosecuting Attorneys
    Pardon, Commutation, Clemency
    Religion and the Church
    Public Opinion
    Methods of Execution
    Botched Executions
    Medical Issues
    Jury Issues
    Future Dangerousness
    Life Without Parole (LWOP)
    DNA
    Wrongful Convictions - Innocence Issues
    False Confessions
    Eyewitness Identification
    Moratorium
    ABA DP Moratorium Implementation Project
    Liebman / Columbia University Study
    Politics and the Death Penalty
    Bush/McCain/Obama/Clinton on the Death Penalty
    Voices of Celebrities & Entertainers
    Notable Death Penalty Quotes
    Cruel and Unusual Punishment
    Ring / Apprendi - Judicial Override
    Habeas Corpus
    Mental Illness and the Death Penalty
    Juveniles and the Death Penalty
    Race and Class Bias
    Women and the Death Penalty
    Costs and Economics of the Death Penalty
    Deterrence and Incapacitation
    After Release from Death Row
    Execution by Consent / Waiver of Appeals
    Victim's Families
    Witnesses to the Execution
    McVeigh / Nichols - Oklahoma City Bombing
    Death Row Inmate Homepages / Memorials
    Karla Faye Tucker
    Mumia Abu-Jamal
    Dead Man Walking / Sister Helen Prejean
    Famous / Historical Death Penalty Trials
    Notorious Murderers, Serial Killers
    Death Penalty Humor & Curiosity
    Photos, Drawings, Music, Movies, and Art
    Indiana Death Penalty Sites
    Other States Death Penalty Sites
    Federal and U.S. Military Death Penalty
    International
    Foreign Nationals
    Recent Headlines
    Miscellaneous

    3,076 Links May 1, 2008.
    Add URL, report dead links, suggestions, comments, contact Steve Stewart: prosatty@aye.net


    Top 10%

    Absolutely Positively the Best 30 Death Penalty Websites on the Internet (Top 1%)

    Death Penalty Information Center
    Probably the single most comprehensive and authoritative internet rersource on the death penalty, including hundreds of anti-death penalty articles, essays, and quotes on issues of deterrence, cost, execution of the innocent, racism, public opinion, women, juveniles, mentally retarded, and more; Statistics on death rows and executions state-by-state, inmate-by-inmate; Up-to-date death penalty news from around the country. (Unfortunately, this site makes absolutely no effort to present any pro-death penalty views, and liberally spreads propaganda and rhetoric on behalf of "the cause.")

    Focus on the Death Penalty. (Univ Alaska Anchorage)

    Established by the Justice Center at the University of Alaska Anchorage in the wake of a debate on whether to introduce capital punishment to Alaska. Its expressed purpopse is to give a full picture, using existing Internet resources, of the complex issues surrounding capital punishment and its application, and does a commendable job of meeting that purpose. Hundreds of articles and links (some pro-death penalty), history and statistics, issues and organizations.

    Death Penalty News & Updates from Rick Halperin.

    Up-to-date execution statistics and alerts; U.S. Executions since 1977 by name, date, state, and victim(s); Death Row Inmate Homepages and Links. (Southern Methodist University)

    Pro-Death Penalty.Com (Justice For All)

    A comprehensive pro-death penalty site with articles, links, and up-to-date death penalty info and news.

    Wesley Lowe's Pro-Death Penalty Homepage

    Thoughtful pro-death penalty essay addressing arguments re: deterrence, cost, racism, DP vs LWOP, morality, christianity, constitutionality, and risk of wrongful executions.

    Clark County Indiana Prosecuting Attorney

    Comprehensive information on the Death Penalty in Indiana, including statistics, executions since 1900, current death row (with photos), Indiana death penalty laws, history, and methods of execution, with factual and legal summaries of all death penalty cases since 1977; Up-to-date information on the Death Penalty in the United States; Listing and news/legal summaries of all executions since 1976; Over 3,000 death penalty links arranged by subject, including 150+ pro-death penalty links.

    The American Bar Association Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project.

    "The Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project, led by director Deborah Fleischaker, was launched by the American Bar Association (ABA) in September 2001 as the "next step" towards a nationwide moratorium on executions. The Project was created to encourage other bar associations to press for moratoriums in their jurisdictions and to encourage state government leaders to establish moratoriums and undertake detailed examinations of capital punishment laws and processes in their jurisdictions." With links to Resolutions and State by State Assessment Team Reports, naturally concluding that the death penalty systems in each state are "deeply flawed." Notorious for the anti-death penalty views of authors.

    Mandatory Justice: Eighteen Reforms to the Death Penalty. (The Constitution Project June 27, 2001)
    Mandatory Justice: The Death Penalty Revisited. (The Constitution Project February 2006)

    A distinguished panel, but with a clear anti-death penalty slant, make up The Constitution Project, Death Penalty Initiative. (Includes well-known anti-death penalty activists former New York Governor Mario Cuomo, former Florida Chief Justice Gerald Kogan, and former Baltimore Mayor Kurt Schmoke. Their report was presented to the United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary on June 27, 2001 at hearings on "Protecting the Innocent: Ensuring Competent Counsel in Death Penalty Cases." Their recommendations include: adequate compensation, standards and training for defense counsel; the removal of certain classes of defendants and homicides from death penalty eligibility; greater flexibility for introducing evidence that casts doubt on a conviction or sentence; gathering of data on the role of race in capital punishment and involvement of all races in the decision-making process; elimination of a judge's ability to impose a death sentence despite a jury recommendation for life imprisonment; and requiring prosecutors to open their files to the defense in death penalty cases.

    The Innocence Project.

    The Innocence Project at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University, founded by Barry C. Scheck and Peter J. Neufeld in 1992, is a non-profit legal clinic and criminal justice resource center. We work to exonerate the wrongfully convicted through postconviction DNA testing; and develop and implement reforms to prevent wrongful convictions.

    Death Penalty and Religion Links by The Theology Library.

    Thorough collection of 104 mainly religious death penalty links on the web, almost entirely anti-death penalty, put together by Gerald Darring, instructor at Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama.

    "A Call For Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty" Conference held January 25, 2002.

    From the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Resources include list of attendees, transcipts of the conference, news reports on the conference, as well as a bibliography, filmography, essays, and death penalty links.

    Criminal Justice Legal Foundation.

    A California-based nonprofit public interest law organization dedicated to restoring a balance between the rights of crime victims and the criminally accused. Includes summaries of recent cases of interest in California, U.S. Court of Appeals, and U.S. Supreme Court, with index of amicus curiae briefs filed by CJLF. Also, Links and summaries / abstracts of articles and studies on the deterrent effect of capital punishment.

    Capital Punishment 1993-2006. (Bureau of Justice Statistics)

    Yearly publication of the U.S. Department of Justice with detailed statistics and history of the death penalty in the U.S. Accurate source for any and all papers and writings, on both sides of the issue. Availability lags approximately one year behind.

    Before the Needles: Executions in America Before Lethal Injection. (Rob Gallagher)

    The following is a detailed State by State listing of 14,490 executions that occurred under civil authority in the United States or within territory that later became the United States. From George Kendal being shot for espionage in Virginia (1608) until Gary Gilmore met his maker for murder in Utah (1977). Executions are also broken down chronologically, by race and gender, by juveniles, by method of execution, by (non-homicide) conviction. Outstanding work developed from The Espy Files.

    Polling Report.Com.

    Up-to-date public opinion polls on capital punishment from various sources, including Harris Polls, Gallup Polls, ABC/NBC/CNN/Fox News Polls; Also includes polls on Fear of Crime, Crime Victims, DNA, and Police.

    Death Row USA, Winter 2007. (NAACP)

    (As of January 1, 2007) A quarterly report by the Capital Punishment Project of the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc. A complete state by state listing of all current death row prisoners in the United States, by name, race, sex, and juveniles; Summaries of racial and gender characteristics of those executed, on death row, and their victims; Summaries of recent U.S. Supreme Court cases.

    Frontline: Angel on Death Row with Sister Helen Prejean.

    The real life cases from the movie "Dead Man Walking"; Interviews with Sister Helen Prejean and victims; Pros and Cons of the Death Penalty; Chronology of Capital Punishment. (From PBS series Frontline 1998)

    Capital Defense Network.

    Online assistance for the federal capital defense lawyer, at trial, on appeal, or on habeas. Overview of federal death penalty statutes, brief bank, litigation guides, listing of legal research sites, summaries of death penalty opinions, upcoming training and seminars. Federal Death Penalty Resource Counsel Project (FDPRCP)

    Capital Punishment Handbook from the 9th Circuit United States Court of Appeals.

    Comprehensive annotation of helpful and applicable capital habeas law. Table of Contents; Table of Authorities; State Law Summaries/History - Arizona, California, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington; Chapter 1: Constitutionality and Other General Considerations; Chapter 2: Pretrial and Preliminary Stage Issues; Chapter 3: Guilt Phase Issues; Chapter 4: Sentencing Phase Issues; Chapter 5: Federal Death Penalty; Chapter 6: Habeas Corpus Proceedings.

    Federal Judicial Center Resources for Managing Death Penalty Trials and Habeas Corpus Review of Capital Convictions.

    Resource Guide for Managing Capital Trials, 59 pg, (2004); Resource Guide for Managing Capital Habeas Review, 32 pg, (2004); Forms for General Pretrial Orders, Appointment of Counsel, Orders appointing retained counsel, Order appointing second counsel, Notice of Intent to Seek the Death Penalty, Orders setting deadline for notice of intent, Orders appointing mitigation experts, Order appointing psychologist, Order appointing investigator, Sample case budget from Death Penalty Resource Counsel, Memorandum re interim payments for experts, Memorandum re counsel fees and expenses, Order of referral of cost management to magistrate judge, Order raising hourly rate for retained counsel, Order re funds for experts and consultants, Order reducing fees for non-death penalty case, Memoranda re: budget meeting with counsel, Order granting use of jury questionnaire, Sample juror questionnaires, Order to file joint proposed juror questionnaire, Descriptions of jury selection procedures, Introduction to voir dire and selection process, Script for jury voir dire, Order on motion for anonymous jury, Jury Instructions-Guilt Phase, Preliminary penalty-phase instructions, Penalty phase charges, Special-findings forms; Habeas forms.

    Capital Defense Weekly

    Written and edited by Karl R. Keys, a Massachusetts defense attorney for the condemned, created to assist defense attorneys who represent those facing a death sentence. This free legal site offers hundreds of links to assist in legal research, and hundreds more to anti-death penalty articles and publications on the web; Death Watch, Links to dozens of criminal justice and anti-death penalty blogs; Appellate briefs, summaries of recent death penalty cases. Archives of issues since 1997.

    "Death Trip: The American Way of Execution," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)

    Long feature article and commentary, strongly anti-death penalty, making no effort whatsoever to present any pro-death penalty arguments. Includes sections on Killing for Votes, Wrongful Convictions, Never Trust a Prosecutor, Cost, Corruption of Justice, Hanging Judges, Drunk Lawyers, The Supreme Court, Florida's Folly, Young and Retarded Fair Game, Unguided Discretion is Back.

    Famous American Trials by Law Professor Doug Linder. (University of Missouri at Kansas City)

    Detailed recitation of the evidence, arguments, and verdicts in 37 famous historical trials, some involving death penalty issues, including: Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692); Dakota Conflict Trials (1862); Lincoln Conspiracy Trials (1865); Lizzie Borden Trial (1893); Leopold and Loeb Trial (1924); Scottsboro Boys Trials (1931-1937); Rosenbergs Trial (1951); Charles Manson Trial (1970-71); Okla City Bombing Trial (1997); Moussaoui 9/11 trial (2006).

    The Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Cases on Cruel and Unusual Punishment.

    Audio and transcripts of Oral Argument, Opinion Announcement, Docket, Summary and Written Opinion. The Oyez Project is a multimedia archive devoted to the Supreme Court of the United States and its work. It aims to be a complete and authoritative source for all audio recorded in the Court since the installation of a recording system in October 1955.

    "Wrongful Conviction and Innocence Resources on the Internet," by Ken Strutin. (June 10, 2006)

    Scores of links on Current Awareness; Case Profiles; Conferences and Trainers; Innocence Projects; Commission Reports; Organizations; Innocence Project Resources; Legislation; Bibliographies, from Ken Strutin (JD, MLS), an experienced law librarian, criminal defense attorney, and well-known writer and speaker.

    "A Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973-1995," Liebman and Fagan, Columbia University.
    "A Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973-1995," Liebman and Fagan, Columbia University.

    Causing a media sensation, researchers at Columbia University studied more than 4,578 death penalty appeals from 1973 to 1995 and released a report claiming that nationally 68% of all death penalty sentences are overturned on appeal. The study was authored by Columbia University Professors James S. Liebman and Jeffrey Fagan and graduate student Valerie West.

    "A Broken System: Part II," Liebman, Fagan, and Gelman, Columbia University.

    Why There Is So Much Error in Capital Cases, and What Can Be Done About It - Follow-up report authored by Columbia University Professors James S. Liebman, Jeffrey Fagan, and Andrew Gelman with graduate students Valerie West, Garth Davies, and Alexander Kiss. "There is growing awareness that serious, reversible error permeates America's death penalty system, putting innocent lives at risk, heightening the suffering of victims, leaving killers at large, wasting tax dollars, and failing citizens, the courts and the justice system."

    Illinois Governor's Commission on Capital Punishment: Report to Governor Ryan. (April 12, 2002)

    Long-awaited report from the Illinois Commission on Capital Punishment, established by Governor George Ryan shortly after he instituted a moratorium on executions in the state of Illinois in 2000, following the highly publicized "exonerations" of 13 death row inmates since 1976. The report concludes with several controversial recommendations, all restricting the ability of prosecutors to seek a death sentence and the judge and jury's power to deliver one.

    "The Death Penalty - Innocence Issues," by Dudley Sharp. (July 2002)

    Thorough article addressing the concerns of wrongful convictions and execution of the innocent: I. Innocents Released from Death Row: A Critical Review of the Claims; What is the real number?; II. The Risk to Innocents if We Don't Execute; III. Due Process and The Risk to Innocents (Protecting innocent defendants / inmates sacrificing the innocent); IV. OK to Execute the Innocent?; V. Future innocence considerations; VI. The Innocent Executed; VII. Conclusion. From Dudley Sharp, Justice For All, Director of Death Penalty Resources.

    "Oklahoma City Bombing Trials." (CNN.Com Special Report)

    The Bombing; The Courtroom Cast; The McVeigh Trial; The Nichols Trial; Trial Transcripts; Video Almanac of the 1995 Bombing; Links;

    153 Pro-Death Penalty Links

    Pro-Death Penalty.Com (Justice For All)
    A comprehensive pro-death penalty site with articles, links, and up-to-date death penalty info and news.

    Wesley Lowe's Pro-Death Penalty Homepage

    Thoughtful pro-death penalty essay addressing arguments re: deterrence, cost, racism, DP vs LWOP, morality, christianity, constitutionality, and risk of wrongful executions.

    Clark County Indiana Prosecuting Attorney

    Comprehensive information on the Death Penalty in Indiana, including statistics, executions since 1900, current death row (with photos), Indiana death penalty laws, history, and methods of execution, with factual and legal summaries of all death penalty cases since 1977; Up-to-date information on the Death Penalty in the United States; Listing and news/legal summaries of all executions since 1976; Over 3,000 death penalty links arranged by subject, including 150+ pro-death penalty links.

    The Bible's Teaching on Capital Punishment by Logos Christian Resources.

    Online ministry with citations from Old and New Testament supporting Capital Punishment, David L. Brown Th.M. (1992)

    AIM Report: The Death Penalty Saves Lives. (August A 2000)

    Well written essay from Accuracy in Media Editor, Reed Irvine, responding to recent media and political "events" from a pro-death penalty point of view. Includes: Fewer Executions, More Murders; Agenda Of The Major Media; Targeting Bush; Flawed Study; The Clinton-Gore Record; Nullification Tactics; Hollywood's Contribution; The Murder Capital; O.J. And Hurricane Notes.

    The Ultimate Punishment: A Defense (PBS Frontline)

    Scholarly defense of capital punishment by Ernest van den Haag, Professor of Jurisprudence and Public Policy, Fordham University. (1986)

    "The Death Penalty: A Defence," by David Anderson. (February 2008)

    Introduction; Arguments for the Death Penalty; Answers to the arguments against the Death Penalty; Investigations concerning deterrence; Investigations concerning costs; Are many innocent people sentenced to death?; About public executions; When the Death Penalty becomes unacceptable; Conventions and protocols; Should organs be taken from executed criminals?; The abolitionist’s alternative – lifetime without parole; Amnesty International; The Death Penalty and the Bible; The "right to life" and Death Penalty; EU and Reformed criminal policy.

    Criminal Justice Legal Foundation.

    A California-based nonprofit public interest law organization dedicated to restoring a balance between the rights of crime victims and the criminally accused. Includes summaries of recent cases of interest in California, U.S. Court of Appeals, and U.S. Supreme Court, with index of amicus curiae briefs filed by CJLF.

    Pro-Death Penalty Articles (2000-2008) from Josh Marquis, Oregon Prosecutor.

    Counting the Guilty, commentary on New York Times column by Adam Liptak, March 26, 2008; Let's not squander our moral capital, Oregonian OpEd, February 14, 2008; How many dead innocent victims is "a few"?, on After Innocence, commentary, March 14, 2006; The Innocent and the Shammed, New York Times OpEd on the wrongfully freed, January 26, 2006; Guilty Again!, commentary on DNA confirmation of the guilt of rapist and murderer Roger Coleman, January 15, 2006; Scientific American Fiction?, commentary, January 7, 2006; The Ultimate Sanction Does Work, The Oregonian, December 29, 2005; For select few, death is just, USA Today, December 12, 2005; Supreme Court Visit, The Daily Astorian, December 9, 2005; Karma Comes Around for Tookie, LA Times, December 4, 2005; 1,000th Execution Delayed, by Scott Ott, November 30, 2005; Testimony before the House Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Crime and Terrorism, June 30, 2005; The Myth of Innocence, Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, March 31, 2005; Honesty in the Debate, special to the National Law Journal, February 28, 2005; Prosecutors vs. Journalists: The Gloves Are Off, The Chicago Reader on the Chicago Tribune series, June 29, 2000.

    "The Death Penalty Debate in Illinois," by John J. Kinsella. (DuPage County Bar Association Brief June 2000)

    Thorough description of the recent Death Penalty Debate in Illinois, with a pro-death penalty slant, including a discussion of the Chicago Tribune, the so-called 13 "exonerations," Rolando Cruz and the prosecution of the prosecutors, from John J. Kinsella, First Assistant State’s Attorney for DuPage County.

    "Illinois Prosecutors and Police Acquitted Despite Evidence They Framed Defendant," by Alden Long. (16 June 1999)

    World Socialist Web Site: "A DuPage County, Illinois prosecutor and four sheriff's officers were acquitted by a county judge and jury June 4 of charges that they conspired to frame up and convict Rolando Cruz for murder, rape and kidnapping."

    "Prosecutors vs. Journalists: The Gloves Are Off," by Michael Miner. (Chicago Reader June 9, 2000)

    A column giving a critical reply to the Chicago Tribune series of articles, "Trial and Error," spotlighting the response of the National District Attorneys Association and Oregon Prosecutor Joshua Marquis.

    Death Penalty Debate. (Fayette County, Kentucky Commonwealth Attorney Ray Larsen)

    Office website with excerpts of pro-death penalty articles and argument, including: Opinion polls show that Europeans and Canadians favor the death penalty almost as much as Americans; The Death Penalty: A Careful Response To Heinous Acts; Justice Department Study Concludes No Racial Or Ethnic Bias In The Federal Application Of Death Penalty; Does The Death Penalty Save Innocent Lives?, The Myth Of Racism In Death Penalty; Death Penalty Opponents Apply Flawed Logic; Liebman's Death Penalty "Study" Not Accurate; Nuns To Ring Church Bells When Murderers Executed. As usual, no bells for the innocent victims.

    Articles on Death Penalty Deterrence.

    Links and summaries / abstracts of articles and studies on the deterrent effect of capital punishment. From the Criminal Justice Legal Foundation.

    "Does Capital Punishment Have a Deterrent Effect?" (Emory University Department of Economics January 2001)

    Scholarly research paper from economics professors at Emory University, Hashem Dezhbakhsh, Paul Rubin, and Joanna Mehlhop Sheperd, suggesting that the death penalty has a strong deterrent effect. "An increase in any of the three probabilities - arrest, sentencing, or execution - tends to reduce the crime rate. In particular, each execution results, on average, in 18 fewer murders-with a margin of error of plus and minus 10. Tests show that results are not driven by “tough” sentencing laws." Unlike many similar studies, this research is based mainly upon new data from post-1976 information.

    "Pardons, Executions, and Homicide." (University of Colorado at Denver October 2001)

    Scholarly research paper from economics professors at the University of Colorado at Denver, H. Naci Mocan and R. Kaj Gittings, suggesting that the death penalty has a deterrent effect. The paper uses as a dataset over 6,000 death sentences handed down from 1977 to 1997 in the United States. "We find a significant relationship between the execution and pardon rates and the rate of homicide. Each additional execution decreases homicides by 5 to 6, while three additional pardons generate one to 1.5 additional homicides."

    "The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death," by Professor Isaac Ehrlich June 1975)
    "The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death," by Professor Isaac Ehrlich June 1975)

    Scholarly article from University of Chicago Professor Isaac Erlich, finding a clear deterrence effect of the death penalty. (The American Economic Review, Volume 65, Issue 3, June 1975, Pages 397-417.)

    "Life v. Death: Who Should Capital Punishment Marginally Deter? by Charles N. W. Keckler. (2006)

    Scholarly article from Charles N. W. Keckler, University of New Mexico, finding a clear deterrent in the death penalty for those who murder and do not fear prison. "In different ways, gangland figures, serial killers, and terrorists all make killing their “business”; it is therefore sensible, as well as singularly appropriate, to selectively focus the use of capital punishment on raising the price of their crimes." (2 J. Law, Economics & Policy 101-161)

    "Execution Moratoriums, Commutations and Deterrence: The Case of Illinois," by Dale O. Cloninger & Roberto Marchesini. (2006)

    Abstract of Paper by Dale O. Cloninger & Roberto Marchesini, University of Houston-Clear Lake. "In January 2003 just prior to leaving office, the Governor commuted the death sentences of all of those who then occupied death row. It is found that these actions are coincident with the increased risk of homicide incurred by the residents of Illinois over the 48 month post-event period for which data were available. The increased risk produced an estimated 150 additional homicides during the post-event period. " (Applied Economics, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 967-973 (May 20, 2006)

    "State Executions, Deterrence, and the Incidence of Murder," by Paul R. Zimmerman. (2004)

    Scholarly article by Paul R. Zimmerman, U.S. Federal Trade Commission - Bureau of Economics. "Correcting for simultaneity, the estimates imply that a state execution deters approximately fourteen murders per year on average. Finally, the results also suggest that the announcement effect of capital punishment, as opposed to the existence of a death penalty provision, is the mechanism actually driving the deterrent effect associated with state executions." (Journal of Applied Economics, Vol. VII, No. I (May 2004), 163-193).

    "Murders of Passion, Execution Delays, and the Deterrence of Capital Punishment," by Joanna M. Shepherd. (2004)

    Scholarly article by Joanna M. Shepherd, Clemson University. "Each execution results in, on average, three fewer murders. In addition, capital punishment deters murders previously believed to be undeterrable: crimes of passion and murders by intimates. Moreover, murders of both black and white victims decrease after executions." (Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 283-322 (June 2004)

    "Does Capital Punishment Have a Deterrent Effect?" (Emory University Department of Economics January 2001)

    Scholarly research paper from economics professors at Emory University, Hashem Dezhbakhsh, Paul Rubin, and Joanna Mehlhop Sheperd, suggesting that the death penalty has a strong deterrent effect. "An increase in any of the three probabilities - arrest, sentencing, or execution - tends to reduce the crime rate. In particular, each execution results, on average, in 18 fewer murders-with a margin of error of plus and minus 10. Tests show that results are not driven by “tough” sentencing laws." Unlike many similar studies, this research is based mainly upon new data from post-1976 information. (Inactive link)

    "Reply to Donohue and Wolfers on the Death Penalty and Deterrence," by Paul H. Rubin. (Economists Voice April 2004) "Reply: The Death Penalty Once More," by Paul H. Rubin. (Economists Voice April 2006)

    Replies from Economist Paul H. Rubin after criticism from economists John J. Donohue and Justin Wolfers.

    "Getting Off Death Row: Commuted Sentences and the Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment," by H. Naci Mocan & R. Kaj Gittings. (2003)

    Scholarly article by H. Naci Mocan & R. Kaj Gittings, University of Colorado at Denver. "We find statistically significant relationships between homicide and executions, commutations and removals. Specifically, each additional execution (commutation) reduces (increases) homicides by about 5, while an additional removal from death row generates about one additional murder." (Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 453-478 (October 2003)

    "The Death Penalty Deters Crime and Saves Lives," by David B. Muhlhausen. (August 28, 2007)

    Testimony delivered on June 27, 2007, before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Property Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States Senate from David Muhlhausen, a Senior Policy Analyst in the Center for Data Analysis at The Heritage Foundation.

    The Anti-Death Penalty Movement has Failed.

    Interesting and thorough essay written by a strong opponent of Capital Punishment, Defense Attorney Andrew Hammel, who flatly states that the anti-DP movement has failed and offers suggestions on how to get it back on the right track: Admit failure and take responsibility for it; Avoid bogus claims of innocence; Do not make martyrs or heroes out of death row inmates; De-emphasize demonstrations; Don't rely on the law, our main focus should be on changing public opinion first.

    The Application of Indiana’s Capital Sentencing Law: Findings of Indiana Criminal Law Study Commission. (January 10, 2002)

    At the request of Governor O'Bannon, the Commission held hearings for almost 2 years in order to answer the following questions: 1. Whether safeguards are in place to ensure that an innocent person is not executed; 2. Whether our special rules requiring definitively trained capital defense counsel are working to ensure that a capital defendant’s legal representation is properly qualified; 3. Whether the review procedures in place in Indiana and in our federal Seventh Circuit appellate courts result in a full and fair review of capital cases; 4. How the cost of a death penalty case compares to that of a case where the charge and conviction is life without parole; 5. Whether Indiana imposes capital sentencing in a race neutral manner; 6. Whether Indiana should consider any changes in its capital sentencing statute.

    "Florida Commission on Capital Cases: Case Histories, a Review of 24 Individuals Released from Death Row." (September 10, 2002)

    "In response to the increased scrutiny of Florida’s capital cases; specifically, a recent study claiming that Florida has the highest rate of death row releases, the commission has researched in-depth the 24 cited cases where individuals have been released from death row. Of these 24 inmates, none were found “innocent,” even when acquitted, because no such verdict exists. A defendant is found guilty or not guilty, never innocent. The guilt of only four defendants, however, was subsequently doubted by the prosecuting office or the Governor and Cabinet."

    A Response to the Bedau and Radelet Study (Justice For All)

    Excerpt from Justice For All pro-death penalty article "Death Penalty and Sentencing Information," responding to the Bedau and Radelet Study on the risk of wrongful execution. (10/01/97)

    Race, Sentencing, and the Death Penalty (Justice For All)

    Excerpt from Justice For All pro-death penalty article "Death Penalty and Sentencing Information," thoroughly addressing the alleged racism in the administration of the death penalty in the United States. (10/01/97)

    Incapacitation and Deterrent Effects of the Death Penalty (Justice For All)

    Excerpt from Justice For All pro-death penalty article "Death Penalty and Sentencing Information," thoroughly addressing the general and specific deterrent effects of the death penalty in the United States. (10/01/97)

    The Costs of LWOP versus the Death Penalty (Justice For All)

    Excerpt from Justice For All pro-death penalty article "Death Penalty and Sentencing Information," thoroughly addressing the financial costs of the death penalty as opposed to life imprisonment without parole in the United States. (10/01/97)

    Christianity and the Death Penalty (Justice For All)

    Excerpt from Justice For All pro-death penalty article "Death Penalty and Sentencing Information," thoroughly addressing religion and the death penalty, with significant Biblical citations and references, and commentary from Justice For All. (10/01/97)

    Gary Graham (Texas) and the Anti-Death Penalty Movement: A Case Study Of Lies (Justice For All)

    "Hollywood, Murder, and Texas - Death Row Inmate Gary Graham and the Anti-Death Penalty Movement: A Case Study of Lies, Half-Truths and Intimidation." (1994) Thorough Justice For All article detailing the fraud of Hollywood and the "movement," and their campaign of disinformation.

    The Death Penalty in Black and White by Dudley Sharp (Justice For All)

    Thorough article from Dudley Sharp (Justice For All), published in the weekly E-Zine IntellectualCapital.Com, addressing the alleged bias and racism in the administration of the death penalty in the United States. (June 1999)

    The Risk of Wrongful Execution of the Innocent (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, addressing the risk of executing the innocent. (10/01/99)

    "The Last Guys Proved Innocent," by Ann Coulter. (Jewish World Review June 27, 2000)

    Short commentary on the 1980's fraud perpetrated by the anti-death penalty forces through the Bedau and Radelet study of innocents executed, with the willing assistance of the media, and the response by Markman and Cassell.

    "Not So Innocent - The death penalty: an argument continued," by Ramesh Ponnuru. (National Review October 1, 2002)

    "Besides, there is a more important reason to reject the over-100 claim: It's not true. DPIC counts people as "innocent" when they were released from death row for reasons wholly unrelated to any belief that they did not commit the crime charged."

    A Critique of the Death Penalty Information Center "Innocence List." (ProDeathPenalty.Com 2000)

    The Death Penalty Information Center (DPIC) Innocence List (“Innocence: Freed from Death Row”) is frequently cited as support for the claim that 102 innocent prisoners have been released from Death Rows across the nation. This list is uncritically accepted as definitive. However, an examination of the premises and sources of the List raises serious questions about whether many of the allegedly innocent prisoners named on The List are actually innocent at all. By Ward A. Campbell. Supervising Deputy Attorney General, State of California.

    "The Death Penalty - Innocence Issues," by Dudley Sharp. (July 2002)

    Thorough article addressing the concerns of wrongful convictions and execution of the innocent: I. Innocents Released from Death Row: A Critical Review of the Claims; What is the real number?; II. The Risk to Innocents if We Don't Execute; III. Due Process and The Risk to Innocents (Protecting innocent defendants / inmates sacrificing the innocent); IV. OK to Execute the Innocent?; V. Future innocence considerations; VI. The Innocent Executed; VII. Conclusion. From Dudley Sharp, Justice For All, Director of Death Penalty Resources.

    "The Guilty and the Innocent," by Paul G. Cassell. (Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy Spring 1999)

    An examination of alleged cases of wrongful conviction from false confessions, from Paul G. Cassell, a University of Utah law professor, emerging as one of the few spokesmen to challenge the anti-death penalty movement.

    Statement of Paul G. Cassell on Claims of Innocence in Capital Cases. (House of Representatives July 23, 1993)

    Full statement of Paul G. Cassell, Associate Law Professor at the University of Utah, given to the Committee on the Judiciary, United States House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, concerning claims of innocence in capital cases. ". . . the risk to innocent life from failing to carry out capital sentences imposed under contemporary safeguards far outweighs the speculative and remote risk that an execution might be in error.

    California Disrict Attorneys: "A Prosecutor's Perspective on the Death Penalty." (March 19, 2003)

    Thorough response to the misinformation and distortion of facts revealed in the arguments by many death row inmates and death penalty opponents, as well as significant media outlets.

    "Ten Anti-Death Penalty Fallacies," by Thomas R. Eddlem. (New American July 3, 2002)

    Pro-DP article addressing 10 recent arguments against the death penalty, including Racism, Cost, Innocance, DNA Evidence, Cruel and Unusual, Pro-Life Consistency, The Company We Keep, No Deterrance, Christian Forgiveness, No Mercy).

    "Where Are the Death Penalty Critics Today? by Walter Berns. (Wall Street Journal June 11, 2001)

    Timothy McVeigh's execution is noteworthy for another reason: Its failure to provoke the usual outcries against the death penalty, or sympathy for the defendant. The opponents of the death penalty have been unusually quiet about the sentence. Timothy McVeigh, like Adolf Eichmann, was a murderer, and I can think of no reason why he should not have been made to pay for his crimes with his life.

    "Pro-life and Pro-Capital Punishment: Contradiction in Terms? by Anthony Gonzales. (Roman Catholic Replies)

    "It must be reiterated again and again that to defend innocent human life (the operative word being "innocent") is not inconsistent with the position that those guilty of heinous crimes should be punished to the full extent the natural and civil law allows. All of human history, including the history described in the Holy Scriptures with God's commands and the natural law are on our side."

    "Attack on Texas Lethal Injections is Bogus," by Sen. Kyle Janek. (Houston Chronicle)

    Article from Texas State Senator and Anesthesiologist Kyle Janek: "Having no hope of overturning capital punishment itself at the ballot box or through the court system, a few vocal death penalty opponents, including inmates, have rolled out a new strategy attacking the inclusion of pancuronium bromide as one of the medications used in the lethal injection process." (Reposted by Criminal Justice Legal Foundation)

    "Capital Punishment Saves Lives," by Jeff Jacoby. (FreeReupublic.Com June 6, 2002)

    Columnist describes the virtues of capital punishment and the disaster wrought by the death penalty moratorium of the 1960's. (Boston Globe)

    "Are Innocent People Being Executed In The U.S.?" (National Center for Policy Analysis)

    Abstract of article by Eugene H. Methvin, "Death Penalty Is Fairer Than Ever," Wall Street Journal, May 10, 2000.

    Death Penalty Procedures. (Justice For All)

    List of 28 separate due process and procedural safeguards afforded the defendant at trial and on appeal, before execution, from Justice For All.

    "Death Penalty Gains Unusual Defenders," by Richard Willing. (USA Today January 6, 2003)

    News article on the increasing willingness of academia to stand for the death penalty: "Academics who back executions are gaining some acceptance. Meanwhile, Blecker says he's getting asked to more academic conferences on the death penalty — usually as the only voice in favor. 'A lion in a den of Daniels' is one way I've been introduced, he says."

    "Death Penalty Guards What is Valued Most," by Dennis Prager. (Milwaukee Journal June 9, 2001)

    Excellent editorial appearing in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel and Los Angeles Times written by talk show host Dennis Prager. (The dilemma of death penalty opponents about the execution of Timothy McVeigh)

    Life Without Parole is Not Good Enough to Insure Public Safety. (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, addressing LWOP as an unacceptable alternative to the death penalty. (10/01/99)

    "Steven Judy: The World is Better Off," by Laura Lane. (Bloomington Herald-Times October 21, 2001)

    20 years after Steven Judy murdered Terry Chastain and her 3 children, a news reporter interviews the prosecutor, Judge, and defense attorney. (inactive link)

    "If Not Death [for William Minnick], Then What?" by Jonathan David Morris. (The Conservative Voice December 24, 2005)

    "Capital crime and punishment is not a subject I enjoy. It became personal on Oct. 26, 1981. Don't let anyone tell you time heals all wounds. It does not. And the recent debate over whether a state should execute a convicted murdering thug just keeps open the wound." "Do We Need the Death Penalty? Yes, It's Still Necessary," by Dudley Sharp. (September 2002)
    Opinion article from "The World and I Online." Also includes counter argument "Do We Need the Death Penalty? It is Immoral and Ineffective," by Steven W. Hawkins. (Heaven forbid that someone would publish a pro-death penalty article without an opposing viewpoint!)

    "Deadly Stakes: The Debate Over Capital Punishment," by Johgn O'Sullivan. (National Review Online August 30, 2002)

    Opinion article from The National Review Online: "A genuinely civilized society would take a very different view. It would pay more attention to the cries of the victims than to its own squeamishness. And it would transfer its compassion from the David Westerfields of this world to the Danielle Van Dams."

    Death Penalty Resource Community.

    Pro-Death Penalty Resource, Statistics, Recent News Reports, Executions/Stays, Forum. "Established in March of 2006, we are here to provide you with accurate death penalty information, up to date case histories, landmark cases, history of the death penalty and current statistics. Discussions and debates are a major part of this site."

    "More Innocents Die When We Don't Have Capital Punishment," by Dennis Prager. (Townhall.Com June 17, 2003)

    Opinion column from talk show host Dennis Prager: "A couple of weeks ago, three New Hampshire prisoners, one a convicted murderer, escaped from prison. What if the murderer had murdered again? On whose hands would the victim's blood have been?"

    "We're Not Executing the Innocent," by Paul G. Cassell. (Wall Street Journal, June 16, 2000 Editorial)

    Wall Street Journal Editorial from University of Utah law professor Paul G. Cassell: "The Bureau of Justice Statistics has found that of 52,000 inmates serving time for homicide, more than 800 had previously been convicted of murder. That sounds like a system collapsing under the weight of its own mistakes -- and innocent people dying as a result."

    Recidivism of Murderers - "Once a Murderer . . ." (ProDeathPenalty.Com June 28, 2000)

    News reports showing specific examples of murderers who were allowed to murder again.

    The Morality of Capital Punishment. (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, addressing the morality and philosophy of the death penalty. (10/01/99)

    "From a Homicide Survivor," by moltar. (Daily Kos December 4, 2004)

    Opinions that only a victim and survivors can tell - a blog entry from the brother of a homicide victim, murdered in 1995 in Florida.

    "The Unkillable Death Penalty: DNA Tests Won't Stop Capital Punishment," by David Greenberg. (Slate.Com June 2, 2000)

    "The problem with this scenario of the collapse of capital punishment in the face of science is that it's just as easy to envision the opposite. If it ever becomes possible to decide conclusively who is innocent and who is guilty, executing the innocent will no longer be a hazard."

    "The Death Penalty: Morally Defensible?" by Casey Carmical.

    Essay from "Casey's Critical Thinking," answering moral arguments against the death penalty, including a critical response to the well-worn slogan "Why do we kill people to teach people that killing is wrong?"

    Habeas Corpus, A Much-Needed Reform," by Andrew Peyton Thomas. (National Review May 4, 1998)

    Magazine article from a former Assistant Arizona Attorney General. "A much-needed reform seemed poised to hasten executions, until federal judges got their hands on it."

    Racism and Capital Punishment (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, addressing alleged racism in the application of the death penalty. (10/01/99)

    "Smoke and Mirrors on Race and the Death Penalty," by Kenneth Scheidegger. (Criminal Justice Legal Foundation)

    "The first step toward that end is to debunk the myth that capital punishment is imposed discriminatorily. The numbers are there in the opponents’ own studies, once we cut through the spin and look at the facts." (CJLF October 2003)

    Rebutting Cliched Arguments Against Capital Punishment. (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, rebutting cliched arguments against capital punishment. (10/01/99)

    The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, addressing the deterrent effects of capital punishment. (10/01/99)

    Making Murder Victim Families a Party in New Jersey Capital Cases.

    July 1, 1996 news article By Maureen Castellano on New Jersey Supreme Court opinion making families of murder victims parties in capital cases for the first time, and allowing victim-impact evidence with restrictions.

    Deterrence: Death Penalty Information - High School Curriculum. (Michigan State Univ)

    Short summary of arguments, pro and con, on the issue of deterrence.

    "Pro: Execution Gives Justice to Forgotten Victim," by Thomas F. Bertonneau. (Detroit News June 3, 2003)

    "In the strange reticence of the usually vocal anti-death penalty spokesmen to plead for McVeigh, we see a lingering vestige of that respect for victims, understood by Aeschylus and Wordsworth, without which morality cannot exist. When that vestige dies, the value of life dies with it."

    Executing the Innocent: Death Penalty Information - High School Curriculum. (Michigan State Univ)

    Short summary of arguments, pro and con, on the issue of wrongful convictions and executing the innocent.

    Capital Punishment and its Cost (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, addressing the financial costs of the death penalty. (10/01/99)

    "Anarchism and Capital Punishment" a short essay by Benjamin R. Tucker (1926)

    Excerpts from the book, "Individual Liberty: Selections From the Writings of Benjamin R. Tucker." While not "pro-death penalty," Tucker does address and condemn the often-repeated statement from opponents of the death penalty, that executions by the state equates with murder. (1926)

    Guest Comment: "Don't Know Much About Calculus," by William Tucker. (National Review September 22, 2000)

    Comment on the New York Times continuance of the ugly tradition by death penalty opponents concluding that there is no deterrence because no-death states have a lower homicide rate. In fact, even the Times own graphs show that homicides have declined much more sharply in states with the death penalty than without. What is needed is high school calculus.

    "The Economics of Capital Punishment," by Richard Posner. (Becker-Posner Blog December 18, 2005)

    "Presumably grants of clemency on such a basis should be rare, since there probably are rapidly diminishing social returns to death-row advocacy, along with diminished deterrence as a result of fewer executions. For the more murderers under sentence of death there are who publicly denounce murder and other criminality, the less credibility the denunciations have."

    "The Economic Death Penalty: Show Me the Model!" (PrawfsBlawg December 19, 2005)

    Response to the blog postings by Becker and Posner on the economics of capital punishment.

    Capital Punishment Coalition.

    Our official name: The Coalition for the Celebration of the Enrichment of Texas Society Through state Capital Punishment Implementation. Membership Requirements: Must consume at least one shot of liqueur in celebration of each inmate executed by the State of Texas or otherwise designated by board member; Must be an advocate of the Death Penalty, as outlined by the State of Texas, etc...

    Pro-Death Penalty News from DPINFO.COM.

    A collection of articles and editorials from Dudley Sharp, Director of Death Penalty Resources at Justice for All.

    Response to California Clemency Petition of Kevin Cooper. (January 21, 2004)

    Full text of brief filed in opposition to the Clemency Petition of California Death Row Inmate Kevin Cooper, filed by the San Bernardino District Attorney. (Posted by Criminal Justice Legal Foundation)

    "Death Penalty Study Ripped," by Teresa Stepzinski. (Jacksonville Times June 23, 2000)

    A nationwide study revealing serious errors in many Florida and Georgia death penalty cases has prosecutors on the defensive, arguing that the report shows a bias against capital punishment."These statistics are an attempt by a certain group to try to make brutal murderers out as victims of the system, . . . Currie, a prosecutor for 20 years, characterized the study as little more than propaganda for death penalty opponents.

    Sentencing Hearing for Timothy McVeigh: Closing Arguments of the Prosecution. (1997)

    Transcript of the Government's Closing Argument asking for the death penalty in the McVeigh trial, delivered by Beth Wilkinson on June 12, 1997. (From "A Call For Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty" Conference held January 25, 2002.)

    Trial of Timothy McVeigh: Opening Statements and Closing Arguments. (1997)

    Transcript of the Government's Closing Argument asking for conviction in the McVeigh trial, delivered by Larry D. Mackey on May 29, 1997. Also, Opening statements from the Government and the Defense, as well as transcripts of the testimony of key witnesses.

    MurderVictims.Com

    A victims resource from "Justice For All," serving as a memorial to the many innocent victims of violent crime and a source for murder statistics, news items, discussion and information. Places the focus back on the victim instead of the perpetrator. Victim survivors can come here to find help, ask questions, give and get advice.

    "The Death Penalty When Used Properly is Pro-Life." (Capitalism.Org)

    Short Pro-Death Penalty Essay from Capitalism.Org. "Any man who murders another man, has declared that he does not accept the principle of individual rights."

    The Wall Street Journal: In Support of the Death Penalty

    Articles from the Wall Street Journal: "Why the Death Penalty Is Fair" by Walter Berns and Joseph Bessette, January 9, 1998; "Why the Unabomber Must Die" by James Tarant, January 6, 1998.

    National Center For Policy Analysis: Idea House (Dallas/Washington 1997)

    Series of Pro-Death Penalty articles, including: Death Penalty Report Widely Misinterpreted; Death-Penalty Opponents Seize On "Underage"; Condemned Prisoners Opting To Die; Myth Of Racism In Death Penalty; Executions And Death Sentences Trailing Off; Upholding The Death Penalty; Death Penalty Questioned; Even With Death Penalty, Most Killers Walk; Capital Punishment Saves Lives; Race & Capital Punishment ; Enlarging the Death Penalty.

    John Stuart Mill - "In Favor of Capital Punishment" (1868)

    1868 speech in English Parliament by John Stuart Mill opposing proposed abolition of death penalty in England.

    "Abolishing the Death Penalty Would be Unfair to Minorities," by Ingram. (Talk Back Blog December 11, 2007)

    "Many recent academic studies have attempted to control for various extraneous variables that might be accounting for the apparent deterrent effect of executions. These studies have concluded that the apparent deterrent effect is not merely apparent. Instead, it is real. If so, then innocent blacks would derive the most benefit from maintaining capital punishment."

    Is Capital Punishment Sanctioned by Divine Authority?

    Long, pro-death penalty essay, heavy on philosophy and religion, by Alexander Campbell of the Restoration Movement (1846).

    "Capital Punishment: A Personal Statement," by Charles Colson. (Prison Fellowship)

    Personal pro-DP statement of Charles Colson of Prison Fellowship and Watergate infamy from 2004.

    Does Capital Punishment Deter Crime?

    Short Pro-Death Penalty essay on the positive deterrent effect of capital punishment with a moral that you can twist statistics to prove almost anything. By Jay Johansen. (1998)

    On Capital Punishment: Is the State No Better Than the Murderer?

    Excellent short essay answering the often-repeated ACLU theme that when the State executes a murderer, it is no better than the murderer. By Jay Johansen. (1995)

    Does Capital Punishment Deter Crime? Comparing States. (Jay Johansen 2003)

    Short Pro-Death Penalty essay on the positive deterrent effect of capital punishment, using murder rates from states with and without the death penalty as support.

    "Capital Punishment Deters Murder," by Clive Owens. (2003)

    Capital punishment deters murder, and is just retribution. Capital punishment, is the execution of criminals by the state for committing crimes, regarded so heinous, that this is the only acceptable punishment. Capital punishment does not only lower the murder rate, but its value as retribution alone is a good reason for handing out death sentences.

    "Capital Punishment: Right or Wrong?" by Randy Alcorn.

    Short pro-death penalty essay from Randy Alcorn, Director of Eternal Perspective Ministries, with emphasis on ethics and religion.

    "Objections to Capital Punishment Answered," by John A. Kohler, III.

    Short biblical answers to common objections raised against capital punishment. (Morris Fork, West Virginia Baptist Church)

    "The Right Remedy for Murder: Death," by the Ministry of the Johnston Family. (Where The Truth Hurts)

    Short pro-death penalty opinion article.

    "Juveniles: Paying the Ultimate Price," by Sarah Decker. (December 13, 2001)

    Short pro-death penalty opinion term paper from high school student Sarah Decker.

    Pro-CapitalPunishment.Com, a A Study Outline by Gary Henry.

    Advocates the use of capital punishment and contains a detailed study outline on the subject, primarily from a biblical perspective.

    "Throwing Stones," by Steve Merten.

    Hundreds of biblical verses in support of Capital Punishment, interpreted by a self-described pro-capital punishment catholic.

    On Capital Punishment and the Death Penalty (Canada)

    Canadian site from the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance with a good discussion of pro and con, with emphasis on religion and with links.

    Capital Punishment and Christianity (Wesley Lowe)

    Thorough Pro-Death Penalty article with significant Biblical citations and references, with commentary from Wesley Lowe.

    The Pope Versus the Death Penalty by Fr. David C. Trosch. (1999)

    Pro-Death Penalty essay criticizing the anti-death penalty policies of Pope John Paul II, with links and citations to the Sequential Authority Structure and the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

    "Sentiment as Social Justice: The Ethics of Capital Punishment," by J. Daryl Charles. (Christian Research Institute 1993)

    Pro-DP essay on the role of the church in modern society: "Reducing matters of morality to private elitism, public opinion, or mushy religious sentiment will only obscure the pressing issues of our culture. How contemporary American society in the future will view the moral difference between crime and punishment depends to a great extent on the church’s involvement in ongoing cultural debate — and on the influence of CNN. Stay tuned."

    Oregon: "A Just Punishment," by Joshua Marquis. (Oregon State Bar May 2002)

    Short pro-death penalty essay from Joshua Marquis, District Attorney of Clatsop County, Oregon and past President of the National District Attorneys Association. Published in the Oregon State Bar Bulletin in response to an anti-death penalty article publiched the month before.

    "Three Good Reasons for Supporting the Death Penalty," by James L. Melton. (1997)

    Pro-DP essay with biblical emphasis listing three good resaons to support death penalty: The Death Penalty Honors God; The Death Penalty Is A Deterrent to Crime; The Death Penalty Is Good for the Environment. (From BibleBelievers.Com)

    "The Bible and Capital Punishment," from Stand to Reason. (Gregory Koukl)

    Well organized study outline discussing the Bible and the Death Penalty. (1994)

    "Life for a Life: The Bible and Capital Punishment," by James Patrick Holding.

    "So it boils down to this: The Bible allows (but does not mandate) CP. The contextual grounding within which it was applied in the Bible is now different in modern society, and we must look at the issue accordingly."

    "Death Penalty Biblical, Not Vengeful, Southern Seminary's Moore says," by Michael Faust. (BPNews November 13, 2001)

    "Moore, who supports the use of the death penalty, argued that Romans 13 gives the government the right to punish those who do wrong. I believe that Scripture mandates that the government take this position in order to preserve public justice and order."

    "Capital Punishment: Is Man a Machine or a Moral Agent? by Gregory Koukl. (Stand to Reason 1996)

    Thoughtful pro-DP essay from Gregory Koukl: "Whether the government kills millions of innocent Jews or a single vicious and unrepentant murderer, the death penalty diminishes us all. This was one of those pieces that stands out for me as an example of a lack of moral clarity -- an inability to make valuable moral distinctions regarding behavior. Of course, I expect such a thing in a culture that is run through and through with relativistic thinking, and has a view of man that diminishes him to a mere machine."

    "Fairness of Death Penalty Panels Questioned," by John Gramlich. (Stateline.Org May 02, 2008)

    "Death-penalty supporters are raising questions about the fairness of state commissions charged with studying how capital punishment is carried out in Maryland and Tennessee, claiming the panels will issue reports that ignore their views."

    "Issues of Life 2: Capital Punishment," from James & Dave's Bible Page. (2003)

    Pro-DP essay with biblical emphasis from James and Dave's Bible Page, an interactive Full Gospel Christian site: "The death of anyone-even a convicted killer-diminishes us all. But we are diminished even more by a justice system that fails to function. It is an illusion to let ourselves believe that doing away with capital punishment removes the murderers deed from our conscience...When we protect guilty lives, we give up innocent lives in exchange."

    "God and the Death Penalty." (Theology Online)

    Pro -DP Biblical responses to "Turn the other Cheek"; "He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first"; "But if you do not forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses."; "Judge not, that you be not judged."; "Vengeance is Mine, I Will repay," says the Lord."; "Thou shalt not kill".

    Mishpatim: On Delivering Punishment to Fit the Crime.

    Thoughts on the Torah and punishment by Rabbi Stephen Pearce, Jewish Bulletin of Northern California.(1996)

    "Judaism's Pro-Death Penalty Tradition," by Steven Plaut. (JewishPress.com April 23, 2004)

    "The Bible makes it crystal clear that the way one acknowledges that human souls are created in God`s image and deserving of respect and dignity is through capital punishment."

    Bring Back Capital Punishment (Canada)

    Pro-Death Penalty Canadian site with links.

    "Debate Over Capital Punishment - A Pro Stance." (StudyWorld 1994)

    Short pro-DP essay by Lisa from StudyWorld.

    "The Penalty of Death," by Patrick Meehan. (Publisher's Catalog 1998)

    Short pro-DP essay by Patrick Meehan: "And as with a tooth, so with a life. We require a life in retribution for a slaying so that the civil order may once again be in balance. The rhythms of daily life, thrown into disorder by a murderous assault that ended a life, are restored by the execution of the assailant, and can be restored in no other way."

    Justice for Police Officer Daniel Faulkner (Victim of Mumia Abu Jamal)

    Website dedicated to the Philadelphia Police Officer murdered by Mumia Abu Jamal, the prolific "journalist" convicted and sentenced to death in 1982, who has mounted an aggressive web campaign of disinformation. Facts from the trial and appeal are provided to dispel myths created by that campaign.

    Tribute to Police Officer Daniel Faulkner (Victim of Mumia Abu Jamal)

    Website tribute to the Philadelphia Police Officer murdered by Mumia Abu Jamal, the prolific "journalist" convicted and sentenced to death in 1982, who has mounted an aggressive web campaign of disinformation. This site describes the fund raising tribute dinner in the officer's name, from Philadelphia attorney Michael A. Smerconish.

    What About Capital Punishment?

    Short pro-death penalty biblical essay by Glenn Dunehew.

    Pro-Death Penalty New Jersey.

    Urgent Please Act Now!; Gone But Not Forgotten; 9-1 On DRow/16-2 Victims; NJ DP Study Problems; Facts and Common Sense; Petition; Contact NJ Lawmakers; Contact Us.

    The Death Penalty Debate by Bob Enyart Live.

    Detailed pro-death penalty biblical essay by conservative news/talk show host Bob Enyart.

    The Critical Justification for Society Imposing Punishment.

    Very short statement with the thesis that all punishments are to keep society from falling into the belief that the only way they can get justice is to exact a personal revenge. (Gil Warren)

    The Washington Legal Foundation.

    Pro-Death Penalty organization founded in 1977, whose primary mission is to defend and promote the principles of free enterprise and individual rights through advocacy of free-enterprise principles, limited government, property rights, and reform of the civil and criminal justice system.

    "The Death Penalty Dilemma," by Charles E. Rice. (The New American April 4, 1994)

    The death penalty provides a means to restore respect for innocent life.

    "Deserving to Die," by Robert W. Lee. (The New American August 13, 1990)

    Capital punishment protects the innocent and properly transfers burden of crime to the guilty.

    "Cruel and Unusual Leniency," by Robert W. Lee. (The New American August 30, 1990)

    Opponents of capital punishment shed few tears for the many victims of judicial leniency.

    "Murders That Could Have Been Averted By Capital Punishment." (The New American August 30, 1990)

    Very short statement with the thesis that all punishments are to keep society from falling into the belief that the only way they can get justice is to exact a personal revenge. (Gil Warren)

    "Death penalty: Still guilty," by Peter Bronson. (Cincinnati Enquirer June 18, 2000 )

    Opinion article claiming that the worst opponents of capital punishment are not ethical. They ignore victims and make martyrs of murderers. They sabotage the system at taxpayer expense, then say executions are too costly. Defense lawyers salt the record with deliberate mistakes, then say the killer had a lousy defense. The latest twist looks like more of the same.

    "Death Penalty Error Study has Errors of Its Own." (Criminal Justice Legal Foundation June 19, 2000)

    The study touted by anti-death penalty activists, claiming to show that American capital sentences are "fraught with error," is itself riddled with unjustified assumptions and false statements, according to CJLF.

    Columbia Study: "Alabama Doesn't Execute Innocent People," by Bill Pryor. (Huntsville Times July 4, 2000)

    Opponents of capital punishment recently captured national attention with the release of a biased and flawed report. The report omits critical information and was designed to support the preordained conclusions of its authors.

    "OJ Was Proved Innocent Too," by Ann Coulter. (TownHall.Com June 30, 2000)

    Conservative columnist Ann Coulter makes the point that the arguments against the death penalty are puffed up with phony statistics and false facts. Most recently capturing attention with reports of releases from death row. However, as the entire country ought to know after the O.J. trial, not being in prison doesn't mean you're innocent.

    "Surgical Effect of Death Penalty," by John F. McManus. (The New American August 13, 1990)

    Analogous to amputation, capital punishment removes diseased members to protect society.

    "The Death Penalty - True Cause for Justice," by Cynthia G. Oberg. (May 4, 2000)

    Short pro-death penalty essay, discussing cruel and unusual punishment, deterrence, cost and efficiency, and morality.

    "Pro-Capital Punishment," a term paper by University of Bridgeport student Mrinalini Dar. (2000)

    Short pro-death penalty term paper.

    Christian Bible Study and Games: The Capital Punishment Bible Quiz.

    A 10 question Bible quiz on the issue of capital punishment. Answers are submitted, and the score is automatically tabulated with citations and explanations of correct and incorrect answers.

    "The Cure of Bloody Souls," by James L. Sauer. (The New American August 30, 1990)

    Capital punishment is not only an act of justice; it is also an act of mercy, even for the executed.

    "Let the State's Decide," by Charles E. Rice. (The New American July 6, 1987)

    Under the Constitution, it is up to the states to decide whether to have a death penalty.

    "Retribution is an Obligation," by Charles E. Rice. (The New American June 22, 1987)

    Capital punishment is society's way of demonstrating respect for life.

    Pro-Death Penalty Essay, from CollegeTermpapers.Com.

    "Are we effectively punishing our most vile and baneful criminals? I believe some improvement to be necessary; the death penalty should be legalized in all states." (1,121 words)

    Enforce Death Sentences for Cold-Blooded Killers. (1996)

    Pro-Death Penalty article by UCLA Political Science student, Aanand N. Patel for student newspapaer. (1996)

    "Death penalty functions to preserve just society," by Andrew Jones. (February 8, 2001)

    Pro-Death Penalty article by UCLA Political Science student, Aanand N. Patel for student newspapaer. (2001)

    "Capital Punishment," by Ryan Koder. (March 2001)

    Pro-Death Penalty term paper written by high school student Ryan Koder for CollegeTermPapers.Com.

    "Death Penalty Arguments: Deterrent or Revenge (Pros and Cons)," by Lori Ornellas. (May 3, 2001)

    Pro-DP term paper written by relative of murder victim.

    "Death Penalty Deception," Washington Times Editorial. (May 13, 2002)

    Op-Ed piece from the Washington Times, immediately following the announcement of a Maryland moratorium from Governor Glandening, suggesting that it was done for political purposes, and very little to do with justice. (Reposted by the Community of Sant'Egidio)

    General Reference, Directories, and Links

    Death Penalty Information Center
    CourtTV Library: The Death Penalty - History, Statistics and Articles.
    Death Penalty on Trial. (CourtTV Online)
    Pro-Death Penalty Links from DPINFO/Sean Smith. (68)
    Death Penalty Links from MegaLaw.Com. (200+)
    Oklahoma Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty: Anti-death Penalty News and Articles
    Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty. (500+)
    Anti-Death Penalty Focus of California (60)
    Cecil Greek's Death Penalty Links (34)
    Yahoo Full Coverage News: The Death Penalty. (News Stories, Magazine Articles, Links Through 2007)
    Google Web Directory: The Death Penalty. (145)
    The Death Penalty Activism Center from SpeakOut.Com.
    Derechos Death Penalty Links. (133)
    Death Penalty and Religion Links by The Theology Library.
    Ethics Update: Death Penalty Links.
    Death Penalty Links with anti-DP commentary from Kari Sable. (100+)
    Geometry the Online Learning Center, Capital Punishment Links. (200+)
    Death Penalty Links from Deerfield High School Library . (31) (February 2003)
    Capital Punishment, from Wikipedia. (67)
    Death Penalty Links from PrisonerLife.Com. (60)
    Death Row Links from PrisonerLife.Com. (27)
    Amnesty International USA: Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Campaign to End the Death Penalty Homepage.
    Fight the Death Penalty in USA Homepage.
    Stop Capital Punishment Now! (Canada)
    Capital Punishment in the United States Resource Guide. (National Archive of Criminal Justice Data, Login Required)
    119 Pro-Death Penalty Links, from Geometry the Online Learning Center.
    Death Penalty Links and Recent Headlines from U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Belgium.
    Death Penalty Links from The Info Service. (85)
    Anti-Death Penalty Information Website.
    Anti-Death Penalty Information & Resources (American Society of Criminologists)
    Frontline: The Execution of Clifford Boggess. (1999)
    American Bar Association Focus on Law Studies: The Death Penalty. (Spring 1997)
    National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty Homepage.
    "The Death Penalty Reconsidered," a Death Penalty Feature from the Washington Post.
    The Coalition for the Celebration of the Enrichment of Texas Society Through State Capital Punishment Implementation.
    ACLU Death Penalty Homepage
    ACLU Death Penalty Briefs
    The JusticeNet Prison Issues: Death Penalty Links.
    Campaign for the Abolition of the Death Penalty Homepage Links. (29)
    Castle of Hope for Lost Souls, Death Penalty Links. (88)
    Lamp of Hope Death Row Journal.(1997-2003)
    Cybrary Anti-Death Penalty Links from Talk Justice.(47)
    My Virtual Encyclopedia: Crime and Law Enforcement Links from RefDesk.Com. (69)
    Almanac of Policy Issues: The Death Penalty. (19)
    Death Penalty Links from Ohio University, John McVicker. (22)
    Death Penalty Links from Southwestern College. (28)
    Georgetown University Capital Punishment Research Guide and Links. (20)
    Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute - Death Penalty: An Overview.
    Ethics Updates, from Lawrence M. Hinman, University of San Diego. (67)
    Death Penalty News and Updates from Southern Methodist University. (Up-to-Date)
    Focus on the Death Penalty. (Univ Alaska Anchorage)
    Massachusetts: Anti-Death Penalty Action Team. (23)
    Abolition Now! (German/English)
    Death Penalty Links from Criminal Justice in America. (59)
    Rominger Legal Services Death Penalty Links. (34)
    ALIVE - Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. (Germany)
    Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty. (67)
    Moratorium Now!, a Campaign of Equal Justice USA, A Project of the Quixote Center.
    Decisions, Decisions Online. (Teaching the Death Penalty)
    Death Penalty Links, Pro and Con, from Weid's World. (165)
    Human Rights Watch: Campaign Against the Death Penalty. (8)
    Death Penalty Links from About.Com. (70+)
    Criminal Justice Resources: Death Penalty, from Michigan State University Libraries. (54)
    Death Penalty Links University of Richmond, Community Research Clearinghouse. (25)
    For Whom the Bell Tolls: Stop State Sanctioned Killings.
    The Sentencing Project.
    Centre for Capital Punishment Studies, University of Westminster. (20)
    Constitutional Rights Foundation, Death Penalty History and Public Opinion, Recent Developments. (91)
    Association Rupture, dedicated to the abolition of the death penalty in every country.
    Death Penalty Links from The Public Cause Network. (10+)
    Death Penalty Links from Friends of the Patrick Crusade. (61)
    Death Penalty Links from the Law Office of Kim Kruglick. (33)
    Findlaw: Capital Punishment and the Death Penalty.
    LifeIssues.Net - Anti-Death Penalty/Religion Library.
    Death Penalty Books from Amazon.Com.
    Anti-Death Penalty Books, Films, and Law Reviews, from the Southern Center for Human Rights (2002)
    Books About the Death Penalty in Texas. (Gabi Uhl)
    Anti-Death Penalty Books, Law Reviews, and Homicide Studies. (Death Penalty Information Center)
    Death Penalty and True Crime Books from ProDeathPenalty.Com.
    ABA Division of Media Relations: Death Penalty Bookstore.
    Books, References, Links (26), and other Sources on Capital Punishment (Boston Univ)
    Book Review of "Against Capital Punishment: The Anti-Death Penalty Movement in America, 1972-1994," by Herbert H. Haines.

    Pro & Con: Articles, Essays, and Argument

    Pro-Death Penalty Talking Points and Debate Issues (Justice for All)
    "The Death Penalty Today: Defend It, Mend It or End It?" (Pew Forum Seminar Transcript July 21, 2006)
    Death Penalty Term Papers - Univ of Texas (pro & con)
    "Death Trip: The American Way of Execution," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)
    "The Death Penalty," from the SpeakOut.Com Activism Center.
    "Ten Anti-Death Penalty Fallacies," by Thomas R. Eddlem. (New American July 3, 2002)
    "Why I Changed My Mind on (Against)the Death Penalty," by Lance Morrow. (Time.Com May 3, 2000)
    "The Death Penalty: A Defence," by David Anderson. (2008)
    "Do We Need the Death Penalty? Yes, It's Still Necessary," by Dudley Sharp. (The World and I September 2002)
    "Do We Need the Death Penalty? It is Immoral and Ineffective," by Steven W. Hawkins. (The World and I September 2002)
    "Why the Death Penalty Does Us No Credit," by Lance Morrow. (Time.Com June 2, 2000)
    "A Dozen Reasons to Oppose the Death Penalty," by Mary Meehan. (1982 & 2001)
    American Bar Association Focus on Law Studies: The Death Penalty. (Spring 1997)
    Frontline: The Death Penalty - Pro and Con. (1998)
    American Civil Liberties Union Homepage: Capital Punishment Project.
    Peacework Magazine: The Death Penalty. (American Friends Service Committee)
    "Justice: Retribution or Restoration?," by Howard Zehr. (Peacework Magazine April 1999)
    "The Broken Machinery of Death," by Alan Berlow. (The American Prospect July 30, 2001)
    About.Com The Death Penalty, Pro & Con Links.
    Debating the Death Penalty - Marc Klaas and David Kaczynski. (CBSNews November 6, 2000)
    "Capital Punishment on Trial: Which Side Is Correct?" a Death Penalty Research Paper by Theodore Kamis. (1996)
    "The Death Penalty - A Balanced Debate." (Intellectual Loafing)
    Why the Death Penalty is Fair. (Wall Street Journal 01-09-98)
    Capital Punishment in the United States: A Forum on Death-Penalty Issues. (Cambridge University December 2000)
    In Favor of Capital Punishment (John Stuart Mill 1868)
    Life Without Parole is Not Good Enough to Insure Public Safety. (Wesley Lowe)
    The Morality of Capital Punishment. (Wesley Lowe)
    "Anarchism and Capital Punishment" a death penalty essay by Benjamin R. Tucker (1926)
    Some Thoughts on the Death Penalty, Pro and Con. (Capital Punishment U.S.A.)
    Rebutting Cliched Arguments Against Capital Punishment. (Wesley Lowe)
    "The Death Penalty Legend," by Jonathan Wallace. (Ethical Spectacle July 2000)
    "Legal Arguments Against the Death Penalty," by David L. Gregory. (The Vincentian Center Spring 1995)
    "Billy Budd and Capital Punishment: A Tale of Three Centuries," by H. Bruce Franklin. (1997)
    "Reason and the Death Penalty," by George F. Will. (Pittsburg Tribune October 30, 2003)
    "The Death Penalty Dilemma," by Charles E. Rice. (The New American April 4, 1994)
    Should the Death Penalty be Abolished? (Cato Institute Policy Forum 2000)
    "Terre Haute, Indiana: Death on the Installment Plan," by Johnathan Shainin. (The Nation July 23, 2001)
    "A System That Will Take Life Must First Give Justice," by Alex Hurder. (ABA Human Rights Report Winter 1997)
    "Capital Punishment: Can the Deontologist Justify the Death Sentence?" by Laurence at the Hanging Garden. (1998)
    "A Conservative Case Against Capital Punishment," by Carl M. Cannon. (National Review June 19, 2000)
    "The Libertarian Case Against the Death Penalty," by Brian Carnell. (LibertySearch.Com May 24, 1999)
    "What Is, and Is Not, Wrong With the Death Penalty," by Sherry F. Colb. (FindLaw November 22, 2000)
    "Deserving to Die," by Robert W. Lee. (The New American August 13, 1990)
    "Cruel and Unusual Leniency," by Robert W. Lee. (The New American August 30, 1990)
    "Murders That Could Have Been Averted By Capital Punishment." (The New American August 30, 1990)
    "Surgical Effect of Death Penalty," by John F. McManus. (The New American August 13, 1990)
    "The Cure of Bloody Souls," by James L. Sauer. (The New American August 30, 1990)
    "Execution is Not the Solution," by Yesha Sutaria. (The Midway Review Winter 2006)
    "Let the State's Decide," by Charles E. Rice. (The New American July 6, 1987)
    "Retribution is an Obligation," by Charles E. Rice. (The New American June 22, 1987)
    "The Debate Over Capital Punishment Rages On, But Exactly Who Are the Opponents and Proponents? (Copernicus Marketing July 1, 2001)
    ""Innocence is Irrelevant," an anti-death penalty essay by Charles Wilton. (Peacework Magazine April 1999)
    "The Executioner's Swan Song?" by Michael Kroll. (Salon.Com February 8, 2000)
    The Death Penalty Quiz (National or Georgia Version), from Amnesty International Group 75.
    The Death Penalty in the 21st Century. (American University Conference Transcript, 1995)
    "The Case Against the Death Penalty," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (ACLU 1997)
    "The Case Against the Death Penalty," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (Michael Wood 1992)
    "The Case Against the Death Penalty," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (NIU 1992)
    "Thinking About the Death Penalty Today," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (Peacework Magazine 1999)
    "The Death Penalty on Trial," by Jonathan Alter. (MSNBC Newsweek June 4, 2000)
    Abolish the Death Penalty Blog, dedicated to putting a human face on the debate over capital punishment.
    "Death Penalty System Likened to Professional Sports," by Janet Conley. (Law.Com October 13, 2000)
    "Legalized Murder: The Death Penalty Serves Revenge and Does Nothing to Solve Crime." (MIT October 17, 1997)
    "The Death Penalty: Morally Defensible?" by Casey Carmical.
    "Sick Joke - Or Dead Constitution Walking," by Bob Harris. (Sonoma County Independent February 27, 1997)
    "Abolishing the Death Penalty Would be Unfair to Minorities," by Ingram. (Talk Back Blog December 11, 2007)
    "Rethinking The Death Penalty," by Olatunji Dare. (Seattle Times July 13, 2000)
    "The Death Penalty's Cloudy Future," by Andrew Cohen. (CBSNews.Com April 26, 2002)
    "Capital Punishment. (CBSNews.Com October 2007)
    Justice Blackmun Dissenting Opinion in Callins v. Collins.
    "Rethinking Abolitionism: What Do We Do With Henry?" by Thomas and Boehlefeld. (Northern Illinois University, 1991)
    "Arguments for Life and Death," by Jennifer C. Honeyman & James R.P. Ogloff. (Canadian Journal January 1996)
    "Should the Death Penalty be Banned as a Form of Punishment? In a Nutshell. (Balanced Politics November 11, 2007)
    Talking Points; Anti-Death Penalty "Fact" sheet. (Washington Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty)
    "Talking Points on the 100th innocent released," from Moratorium Now! (2002)
    Anti-DP Talking Points. (The Nation December 2002)
    "Why Conservatives Should Oppose the Death Penalty," by Kenneth Haas. (University of Delaware)
    "Pro-life and Pro-Capital Punishment: Contradiction in Terms? by Anthony Gonzales. (Roman Catholic Replies)
    "Capital Punishment," by George Bernard Shaw. (1948 Atlantic Monthly)
    Atlantic Monthly Articles on the Death Penalty from 1948, 1957, 1960, & 1994.
    "Hearing the Facts About the Death Penalty," by Julie Polter. (Sojourners Magazine, May 1996)
    "The Death Penalty is Nothing More Than Revenge," by Carol Fennelly. (Sojourners Magazine July 1998)
    "An Eye For An Eye - Reconciliation in a Culture of Vengence," by Cindy Yoon and Francyne Harrigan. (Envelopes of Hope March 31, 2007)
    "The Death Penalty is Irrational," by Phil Porter. (1998)
    "Dissecting the Death Penalty: The Reality of Capital Punishment," by Bob Harris. (The Scoop February 9, 1999)
    Short FAQ on the Death Penalty from Capitalism.Org.
    "Death, Legal and Illegal," by Daniel C. Maguire. (Atlantic Monthly Feb 1974)
    "Why the U.S. Should Abolish the Death Penalty" by Jon M. Apgar. (The Touchstone, February 1996)
    "Humility, Compassion and Death," by Jonathan Wallace. (The Ethical Spectacle, December 1997)
    "Capital Punishment in the United States," by Sarah Oppenheim. (Center for Human Rights Spring 1998)
    "The Case Against Capital Punishment: Debunking the Arguments," from Creative Ideas.
    "The Death Penalty: Indefensible," by Allen Lutins. (2002)
    "The Economics of Capital Punishment," by Richard Posner. (Becker-Posner Blog December 18, 2005)
    "Capital Punishment: Our Duty or Our Doom? by Andre and Velasquez. (Markkula Center for Applied Ethics Spring 1988)
    "Death, Reason, and Judgment: the American Experience," by Ronald J. Allen. (Filosofia Politica 1999)
    Editorial: "Abolish the Death Penalty," by Fred E. Foldvary. (The Progress Report 2000)
    Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues (SPSSI) Position Statement Against the Death Penalty. (February 9, 2001)
    Abolish the Death Penalty in Texas Petition. (Pam Davis)
    "The Death Penalty - True Cause for Justice," by Cynthia G. Oberg. (May 4, 2000)
    Anti-Death Penalty Editorial: "Public Support Weakening," by Michael Kroll. (CSIndy.Com February 16, 2000)
    "An Eye for an Eye" by Yoon & Harrigan. (Reconciliation in a Culture of Vengence)
    "Against the American System of Capital Punishment," by Jack Greenberg. (Harvard Law Review Association, 1986)
    "Should Abolitionists Support Legislative 'Reform' of the Death Penalty?" by Carol and Jordan Steiker. (OSU Law Journal 2002)
    "The Death Penalty: A View of Opposition" an essay by Doug Berry.
    The (Anti) Capital Punishment Pages from Theodore Kamis.
    "Why You Should Oppose the Death Penalty," from The Gully, a queer view of news and issues.
    "The Morality of the Death Penalty," by Yves Barbero. (1997)
    "Former Virginia Attorney General Now Death Penalty Foe," by Carrie Johnson. (Richmond Times February 12, 2000)
    Against Capital Punishment (Men's International Theosophical League of Humanity, March 31, 1914)
    Capital Punishment Debate, Robert Blecker and Robert Bohm, Part 1 of 2. (1:30 video) (Univeristy of Central Florida March 22, 2007)
    Capital Punishment Debate, Robert Blecker and Robert Bohm, Part 2 of 2. (0:30 video) (Univeristy of Central Florida March 22, 2007)
    Webquest: Capital Punishment (Course outline from Aloyce Hudson, social studies instructor)
    The Death Penalty, CJ 4530-101, Fall 2007. (Matt Robinson Appalachian State University)
    Capital Punishment in Context: A Resource for College Courses.
    Wrongful Convictions - Law 635S - Winter 2004 Course Page - University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law.
    Lou Wagner's Independent Study Page: The Death Penalty. (Perry High School)
    "Agree or Disagree: A Capital Punishment Debate Project," from Fowlerville, Michigan high school students.
    A Capital Punishment Online Assignment from Gavilan College, California (Fall 1999)
    "The Ethics of the Death Penalty," by Lawrence M. Hinman, Video 28:30. (University of San Diego Ethics Updates March 13, 2001)
    "The Ethics of the Death Penalty," by Lawrence M. Hinman, Powerpoint Presentation. (University of San Diego Ethics Updates March 13, 2001)
    "Retributive Punishment and Reconciliatory Punishment," Edward G. Lawry, Video 50:15. (Ethics Updates March 1, 2001)
    "Stop Killing People: Summary of Factors which Support a Moratorium. (The Progress Report)
    "Capital Punishment: A Gathering of Facts", a term paper. (1997)
    The Abolishment Movement: An Online Forum Dedicated to Abolishing the Death Penalty.
    Anti-Death Penaty Remarks from a Speech by Texas Congressman Henry B. Gonzalez.
    Capital Punishment (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
    Definition of Terms Often Used in the Capital Punishment Debate. (Ohio University)
    Anti-Death Penalty Letter from Mark Twain after Witnessing Hanging. (Chicago Republican May 31, 1868)

    History of Capital Punishment

    Focus on the Death Penalty: History & Recent Developments. (Univ Alaska Anchorage)
    Established by the Justice Center at the University of Alaska Anchorage in the wake of a debate on whether to introduce capital punishment to Alaska. Historical emphasis is 1972 to present, with links to U.S. Supreme Court cases.

    Clark County Prosecuting Attorney - Capital Punishment Timeline

    Timeline from 1622 to the present showing noteworthy events in the history of capital punishment in the United States, with historical summaries and an emphasis on recent legal events.

    Suspended Sentence: How the U.S. Almost Put Capital Punishment to Death.

    Article from the March/April 1997 issue of Salt of the Earth magazine by Kevin Clarke. Excellent discussion of capital punishment in the 1970's, with factual details of Furman and Gregg. (anti-death penalty slant)

    "Capital Punishment 101: A 20th Century History," by J.J. Maloney. (Crime Magazine, February 8, 1999)

    Thorough article discussing capital punishment in the U.S. during the 20th century, summarizing the notorious trials of Sacco and Vanzetti, Bruno Hauptman, the Scottsboro Boys, the Rosenbergs, Caryl Chessman, and Karla Faye Tucker; Also outlines the rulings of the Warren and Renquist Supreme Courts.

    History of the Death Penalty. (PBS Frontline)

    "History of the Death Penalty" by Michael H. Reggio (PBS Frontline), excerpted from Society's Final Solution: A History and Discussion of the Death Penalty. From ancient China and the Code of Hammurabi to the Middle Ages and the American Colonies, a detailed discussion.

    History of the Death Penalty. (DPIC)

    History of the Death Penalty from the perspective of an anti-death penalty group, with a timeline and detailed legal history discussion.

    The History of Capital Punishment from Wikipedia.

    Entry for Capital Punishment includes historical narrative tracing use from primitive cultures to the present.

    Timeline Chronology of Capital Punishment.

    Brief timeline presented by PBS Frontline:Angel on Death Row (1998).

    "Capital Punishment in America." (CBS News June 12, 2000)

    CBS News feature report with interactive maps and timelines showing statistics, history, famous cases, publications and links on the death penalty.

    "History of the Death Penalty." (High School Curriculum Michigan State Univ)

    Brief history of the death penalty, from the Code of King Hammaurabi of Babylon, to colonial times, up to the present day.

    Capital Punishment: Rising Tide. (Court TV)

    Very brief historical summary of capital punishment from Court TV, emphasizing 1970's but noting first execution in 1622.

    Capital Punishment Timeline, from antideathpenalty.org.

    Highlights in the history of the death penalty 1607-2004.

    The History of Capital Punishment. (T.P Uschanov, Philosophy Professor, University of Helsinki)

    Brief list of links addressing the history of the death penalty in the U.S., state by state, and worldwide, country by country.

    National Death Penalty Archive. (University of Albany Capital Punishment Research Initiative)

    The National Death Penalty Archive, the first archive in the nation that is exclusively dedicated to the history of the death penalty in the United States, opened August 9, 2005. The archives are housed in the University at Albany's M.E. Grenander Department of Special Collections and Archives.

    A Brief History of Alcatraz.

    Brief history of the federal prison on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay provided by the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

    Tyburn Tree Homepage: Public Executions in Early Modern England.

    Information on public executions in Early Modern England, specifically London. Maintained by Charlie Mitchell, Assistant Professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

    The History of Capital Punishment (Hanging) in England

    Timeline of hanging in Britain; Listing of those hanged this century; Hangmen since 1850; The history and process of execution by hanging, from Capital Punishment - U.K.

    "The Last Public Execution in America," a book by Perry T. Ryan. (1992)

    Complete text of 26 chapter book written about the execution of Rainey Bethea on August 14, 1936, hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky, before a crowd of 20,000. The public outrage which followed resulted in the complete abolition of public executions in the United States. (with photo)

    The Execution of Caleb Adams.

    Historical summary of the case of Caleb Adams, who in 1803 murdered six year old Oliver Woodworth in Connecticut, and was tried, convicted, and executed.

    Witchcraft in Salem Village.

    A history of the infamous Salem Witch Trials of 1692.

    "Death Penalty: When Life Generates Death (Legally)," by Lorenzo and Paolo.

    A brief undocumented history of ancient civilizations, including Greeks and Romans.

    Recent Legal History of the Death Penalty in America. (About.Com)

    A brief history of recent legal events concerning the Death Penalty in America.

    The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition: Capital Punishment. (2007)

    Brief encyclopedia entry, with historical highlights of the death penalty.

    Rick Halperin Papers, 1982-2000, compiled by Sarah Kim. (State University of New York at Albany Archives May 2005)

    This collection contains news clippings, newsletters, campaign materials, letters of plea, flyers and notices of rallies, research materials, organizational reports, and publications on the issue of the death penalty.

    The Case of Mary Surratt, first woman executed in the United States.

    The life story of Mary Surratt and her involvement in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Compiled from the research of James O. Hall, published and copyrighted by the Surratt Society of Clinton, Maryland.

    "Death, Money, and the History of the Electric Chair," by Mary Bellis. (About.Com)

    The history of the electric chair and death by execution, including What is AC? What is DC? The Birth of Electrocution; Westinghoused.

    The History of the Electric Chair," by Mary Bellis. (About.Com)

    Very brief timeline (1880-1890) of the electric chair, from Canadian Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.

    "Dirty Details: Executing U.S. Soldiers During WW II," by J. Robert Lilly, Northern Kentucky University. (November 28, 1995)

    Scholarly paper examining the execution of U.S. soldiers during World War II. It describes the crimes, defendants and victims for 18 military executions that took place in England, 1943-1945.

    "Executing U.S. Soldiers in England, WWII: The Power of Command Influence and Sexual Racism," by J. Robert Lilly. (1995)

    Scholarly paper examining the execution of U.S. soldiers in England during World War II. It describes the purpose of the executions was to control a perceived danger: the socializing of African American troops with British females, and the possible explosive violence between caucasian and African American troops.

    The History of Capital Punishment in Alaska.

    Excellent discussion of the death penalty in Alaska, including recent legislative efforts to reinstitute the death penalty.

    Death Penalty History in Arizona.

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Arizona, including list of executed prisoners by name, date and method, with last meal requests, provided by the Arizona Department of Corrections.

    Death Penalty History in California.

    Excellent discussion of the death penalty in California from the California Department of Corrections.

    Death Penalty History in Colorado.

    Very brief summary of the death penalty in Colorado from the Colorado Department of Corrections.

    "Capital Punishment in Colorado: 1859–1972," by Michael Radelet. (Colorado Public Defender 2003)

    Thorough essay on Colorado death penalty history, with Catalog of Colorado Executions and Colorado Execution Statistical Tables.

    Death Penalty History in Delaware.

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Delaware, including list of executed prisoners, current death row, and execution procedures, provided by the Delaware Department of Corrections.

    Death Penalty History in Florida.

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Florida, prticularly the use of the electric chair, provided by the Florida Department of Corrections.

    Death Penalty History in Illinois.

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Illinois, given as part of an introduction to the law review article: "The Quality of Justice in Capital Cases: Illinois as a Case Study," by Leigh B. Bienen. (61 Law & Contemp. Probs. 193 Autumn 1998)

    Death Penalty History in Indiana.

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Indiana as part of a collection of news reports from the Indianapolis Star newspaper.

    Death Penalty History in Iowa.

    Chronological Timeline of the death penalty in Iowa 1834-2001, from Iowans Against the Death Penalty.

    Death Penalty History in Maryland.

    Detailed report on the history of capital punishment in Maryland, with a discussion of the recent administration of the death penalty and its problems, and with specific findings and recommendations for the future. (Report Of The Governor's Commission On The Death Penalty, (April 27, 1994)

    Death Penalty History in Maryland.

    Brief history of capital punishment in Maryland, with timeline from 1978, provided by the Maryland Citizens Against State Executions.

    The Death Penalty in Massachusetts: Facts and History. (NoDP)

    Brief history of the death penalty in Massachusetts

    Massachusetts: "Success at Long Last, Abolition of the Death Penalty 1928-1984," by Alan Rogers. (BC Journal 2002)

    Law Review article tracing the history of the death penalty in Massachusetts and its abolition from 1928-1984.

    Death Penalty History in Michigan.

    Very brief history of Capital Punishment in Michigan compiled by Marietta Jaeger-Lane, provided by the Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.

    Death Penalty History in Missouri.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in Missouri provided by the Missouri Department of Corrections and Missouri.Net, including a listing of executed prisoners since 1938.

    "The History of Capital Punishment in Mississippi: An Overview," by Donald A. Cabana. (History Now October 2004)

    "The first known execution by the State of Mississippi was July 16, 1818, in Adams County with the hanging of George H. Harman, a white male, for “stealing a Negro.” From Don Cabana, former Warden who presided over executions at Mississippi State Penetentiary.

    Death Penalty History in Nevada. (Nevada State Library and Archives)

    From an article written by Guy Louis Rocha, "An Outline of Capital Punishment in Nevada." List of executions 1861-2004.(updated April 20, 2007)

    Death Penalty History in Nevada - Nine Executions (Las Vegas Review-Journal (April 22, 2001)

    News article on the execution of Sebastian Bridges in 2001, with brief summaries of the previous 8 executions in the state of Nevada since 1976.

    "Executions in the State of New Mexico: The Death Penalty Since Territorial Days," by Mark Allan. (Angelo State October 26, 2001)

    Brief summaries of executions in New Mexico territory and state from 1913-1960.

    History of the Death Penalty in New Mexico

    Very brief history of the death penalty in New Mexico as part of a state commissioned study conducted by the League of Women Voters. (2005-06)

    "The Death Penalty Returns to New Mexico"

    A paper written by Kenneth W. Mentor, Department of Sociology and Criminal Justice, University of North Carolina Pembroke, which focuses on the 2001 execution of Terry Clark and includes a very brief history of the death penalty in New Mexico. (2002)

    Death Penalty History in North Carolina.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in North Carolina provided by the North Carolina Department of Correction.

    Death Penalty History in North Dakota.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in North Dakota provided by the North Dakota Supreme Court.

    Death Penalty History in Ohio.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in Ohio provided by the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction.

    Death Penalty History in Ohio.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in Ohio provided an anti-death penalty group.

    "Addressing Capital Punishment Through Statutory Reform," by Douglas A. Berman.

    Scholarly article from the Ohio State Law Journal Vol. 63: 1 (2002), with a foreward which highlights historoical developments of capital punishment in the U.S.

    Death Penalty History in Oklahoma.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in Oklahoma provided by the Oklahoma Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.

    Death Row in Oklahoma 2001.

    Brief summaries of 134 Oklahoma death row inmates case and appeal status, with photos, from TulsaWorld.Com.

    "Death on the Gurney: An Idea Made in Oklahoma," by Kevin Acers.

    Brief article on the origins of lethal injection as a means of execution originating in Oklahoma.

    Death Penalty History in Oregon.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in Oregon 1864-1996 provided by the Oregon Department of Corrections, with executions and current death row information, and methods of execution, with photo of death chamber.

    Death Penalty History in Pennsylvania.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in Pennsylvania from Kimberly & Albrecht Powell. (About.Com)

    Death Penalty History in South Carolina.

    Brief history of Capital Punishment in South Carolina provided by the South Carolina Department of Corrections.

    Death Penalty History in Tennessee.

    Brief chronology of the death penalty in Tennessee provided by the Tennessee Department of Correction.

    Death Penalty History in Texas. (Texas Department of Criminal Justice)

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Texas, including list of executed prisoners by name, date and method, provided by the Texas Department of Criminal Justice.

    Death Penalty History in Utah.

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Utah, by L. Kay Gillespie, from "The Unforgiven: A History of Utah's Executed Men." (1991)

    Death Penalty History in Washington State. (Washington DOC)

    Brief history of the Death Penalty in Washington State, with list of executions and current death row.

    Death Penalty History in Washington State. (WCADP)

    Brief legal history of the Death Penalty in Washington State, with list of executions and current death row, from the Washington Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.

    Death Penalty History in West Virginia.

    Brief history of the death penalty in West Virginia. "Thy Brother's Blood": Capital Punishment in West Virginia," by Stan Bumgardner and Christine Kreiser.

    Death Penalty History in Wisconsin. (Dennis McCann, Milwaukee Journal March 24, 1998)

    Brief history of the death penalty in Wisconsin, detailing the last execution in 1851, where a man convicted of murdering his wife was hanged, but it took nearly 10 minutes for him to die.

    "Death Penalty History in Wisconsin," by Alexander T. Pendleton & Blaine R. Renfert. (Wisconsin Lawyer Ja

    Brief history of the death penalty in Wisconsin, detailing the last execution of John McCaffary in 1851. "A Brief History of Wisconsin's Death Penalty." Wisconsin law has been without the death penalty for 140 years, maintaining this tradition longer than any other state in the nation.

    John McCaffary and the Abolition of Capital Punishment in Wisconsin. (RootsWeb).

    A Collection of Historical Accounts. Excellent Internet Bibliography. In recent years, Kenosha has witnessed the reawakening of interest in the events surrounding John McCaffray and the abolition of the death penalty in Wisconsin a century and a half distant in the past. However, some members of the community seem stubbornly determined to retain their nostalgic, if factually bankrupt, view of this dark period of Kenosha's history. But as Mr Burkel states: "nostalgia isn't history." In the interest of making fact based material available on the internet, you can access the following accounts of the events by simply clicking on the title below:

    Death Penalty History in CA, OR, NV, WA, AZ, ID, MT. (9th Circuit Capital Punishment Handbook)

    Handbook on the death penalty, with citations to federal and state cases and articles; Historical and statutory and case summaries from Oregon, California, Washington, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada, published by the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeal in 1999, also downloadable in Adobe Acrobat format.

    Execution and Death Row Statistics

    Clark County Prosecuting Attorney - U.S. Executions Since 1976.
    Complete listing of all executions in the United States since 1976; Date of Execution, State of Execution, Method of Execution, Murderer's Name-Race-Sex-Age at murder and execution, Date of Birth of Murderer, Victim's Name-Race-Sex-Age at murder and execution, Date of Murder, Method of Murder, Victim Relationship to Murderer, Date of Sentencing; Factual and legal summaries with reposted news accounts of case.

    Death Penalty Information Center.

    Probably the single most comprehensive and authoritative internet rersource on the death penalty, with stats conscienciously kept up-to-date. List of executions since 1976 by name, date, state, method, and race of defendant and victim; State per capita execution rates; Number of executions since 1976 by region and state, and by method; List of recent executions (98-00) with very brief commentary; Size of death row by state and since 1965; State by state info on death row, minimum age, LWOP option, method of execution, clemency process; Info on abolition or last execution in no-DP states.

    Before the Needles: Executions in America Before Lethal Injection. (Rob Gallagher)

    The following is a detailed State by State listing of 14,490 executions that occurred under civil authority in the United States or within territory that later became the United States. From George Kendal being shot for espionage in Virginia (1608) until Gary Gilmore met his maker for murder in Utah (1977). Executions are also broken down chronologically, by race and gender, by juveniles, by method of execution, by (non-homicide) conviction. Outstanding work developed from The Espy Files.

    Death Row USA, Winter 2007.

    (As of January 1, 2007) A quarterly report by the Capital Punishment Project of the NAACP Legal Defense and Education Fund, Inc., hosted by the Death Penalty Information Center. A complete listing of all current death row prisoners in the United States, by name, race, sex, and juveniles; Summaries of racial and gender characteristics of those executed, on death row, and their victims; Summaries of recent U.S. Supreme Court cases.

    Bureau of Justice Statistics: Capital Punishment 1993-2006

    Yearly publication of the U.S. Department of Justice with detailed statistics and history of the death penalty in the U.S. Demographics (race, age, gender, education, criminal history) on those executed and current death row; Number on U.S. death row since 1953; Number executed since 1930 and since 1977 by state and by year; List of jurisdictions with and without death penalty, with summary of statutes and recent statutory changes; Methods of execution and minimum age by state; Time on death row of those executed. Availability lags approximately one year behind. (PDF, Ascii, or Spreadsheet format)

    Bureau of Justice Statistics: Capital Punishment 1989-1997

    Yearly publication of the U.S. Department of Justice with detailed statistics and history of the death penalty in the U.S. Archive of older publications maintained by American Society of Criminologists. (Text format)

    Bureau of Justice Statistics: Prisoners in 1994-2006

    Yearly publication of the U.S. Department of Justice with detailed statistics on the number and demographics of inmates incarcerated in federal, state, and local institutions; probationers and parolees; Changes and trends in incarceration rates. Availability lags approximately one year behind.

    Bureau of Justice Statistics: Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Online (31st Edition 2007)

    Supported by the U.S. Department of Justice, the Sourcebook brings together data from more than 100 sources about all aspects of criminal justice in the United States. These data are displayed in over 600 tables. Sourcebook is organized into six topical sections: Characteristics of the criminal justice systems, Public attitudes toward crime and criminal justice-related topics, Nature and distribution of known offenses, Characteristics and distribution of persons arrested, Judicial processing of defendants, and Persons under correctional supervision. Includes archives of Sourcebook since 1994.

    The ESPY File. (1608-2002)

    Complete list of executed prisoners in the United States from 1608-2002; List of executed prisoners from 1967 to present by name, date, state and method; British executions. (Hosted by Death Penalty Information Center)

    "Death Penalty & Prison Issues," from Lene Pantawapirom.

    News reports on each execution in the United States from 1998-present; Prison Related Links, Prisoner Homepages.

    National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty: Facts and Figures. (NCADP)

    List of jurisdictions with or without death penalty; Current death row population by state; Death Row size since 1968.

    Focus on the Death Penalty: Statistics. (Univ Alaska Anchorage)

    Established by the Justice Center at the University of Alaska Anchorage in the wake of a debate on whether to introduce capital punishment to Alaska. Links to Bureau of Justice Capital Punishment 1992-2003; Executions and death row listings of specific populations, including women and juveniles.

    Death Penalty News and Updates. (SMU)

    From Rick Halperin and Joan Brett. List of executed prisoners since 1977 by name, date, state, method, and names of victims; Number of executions since 1977 by year and state; Texas executions by county; Upcoming executions scheduled.

    Fight the Death Penalty in the USA.

    List of U.S. executed prisoners 1996-2004 by name, date, race, state and method, with very brief news summary on each case; Impending executions; Execution Statistics.

    Amnesty International: Death Penalty USA Pages - Facts and Figures.

    List of U.S. executed prisoners 1998-2008 (up-to-date) by name, date, state and method; Executions by state and by year since 1976; Current authorized methods of execution by state.

    State by State Summary of Execution and Death Row Stats. (Capital Punishment U.S.A.)

    Tables showing state by state number and method of executions, number on death row, population, homicide rates as of January 1, 2005; State by state summary of death penalty laws; Female executions 1900-2005; Female Hangings 1632-1900.

    Executions of Federal Prisoners Since 1927. (Federal Bureau of Prisons)

    Complete list of prisoners executed by the federal government 1927-2008; Date, place and method of execution, Offense Committed.

    Listing of Crimes Eligible for the Death Penalty, State by State, Crime by Crime, with statutory citations. (Bureau of Justice Statistics 2006)

    Publication of the U.S. Department of Justice on the death penalty in the U.S. All executions since 1976 have been for murder or conspiracy to commit murder, although other crimes are eligible for the DP depending on what state you are in.

    InfoPlease.Com

    Number of Persons Executed by Jurisdiction, 1930-2007; Demographics (race, age, education, marital status, criminal history, length of stay) of prisoners on death row; Women On Death Row (as of 12/31/07); Methods of Execution and minimum age by state; Death Row "Exonerations." (1973-2007).

    Court TV Library: Death Penalty

    Map of U.S. showing states with and without death penalty; Summaries of statutes in each state and number of executions since 1930 and 1977. (As of April 1, 2000)

    The American Society of Criminology Critical Criminology Division.

    Methods of Execution by state; Illinois Death Row List 1977-1987 with very brief summary of charge; Bureau of Justice: Capital Punishment 1989-1997.

    State Executions by Time Frame.

    Chart showing executions state by state in each time frame: 1608-1699; 1700-1799; 1800-1899; 1900-1967; Pre-Furman Total; 1976-2001; Grand Total, from "Before the Needles" by Rob Gallagher.

    Stat House: Capital Punishment

    Short summary of capital punishment statistics through 1999 (including year by year execution totals from 1930-1999)from Salt of the Earth Magazine.

    Female Hangings 1632-1900. (Capital Punishment U.S.A.)

    Listing of the women executed in the United states before 1900.

    American Female Executions 1900 -2003. (Capital Punishment U.S.A.)

    Listing of the 49 women executed in the United states since 1900, by age, race, state, date of execution, and method of execution. (short summaries of most recent cases)

    "The Debate Over Capital Punishment Rages On, But Exactly Who Are the Opponents and Proponents? (Copernicus Marketing July 1, 2001)

    Demographics on opponents and proponents of the death penalty, including gender, politics, marital status, income, gun owners, stances on other divisive issues.

    "Execution No. 700." (CBSNews March 7, 2001)

    CBS News report on the 700th execution in the U.S. since reistatement in 1976; Interactive U.S. map with state by state listing of Capital Offenses, Method of Execution, Minimum Age, Executions during 2005, Executions (1977-2005), Prisoners On Death Row:

    The Death Penalty Worldwide. (InfoPlease.Com 2007)

    Listing of world countries that permit capital punishment, or have outlawed capital punishment and the year it was outlawed, citing information supplied by Amnesty International.

    Current Death Row Population and Executions Since 1976. (Pew Forum 2008)

    Anti-Death Penalty Facts, Figures, and Misc Info, from a friend of Texas Death Row inmate Christopher Coleman. (2002)
    Methods of Execution in the States. (InfoPlease.Com 12/31/04)
    Characteristics of Prisoners Under Sentence of Death. (InfoPlease.Com 12/31/04)
    Women on Death Row. (InfoPlease.Com 12/31/07)
    Number of Persons Executed, by Jurisdiction, 1930-2007. (InfoPlease.Com 12/31/07)

    Legal Research / Capital Defense

    Written and edited by Karl R. Keys, a Massachusetts defense attorney for the condemned, created to assist defense attorneys who represent those facing a death sentence. This free legal site offers hundreds of links to assist in legal research, and hundreds more to anti-death penalty articles and publications on the web; Death Watch, Links to dozens of criminal justice and anti-death penalty blogs; Appellate briefs, summaries of recent death penalty cases. Archives of issues since 1997.

    Criminal Justice Legal Foundation: Restoring the Balance for Victims

    A California-based nonprofit public interest law organization dedicated to restoring a balance between the rights of crime victims and the criminally accused. Includes summaries of recent cases of interest in California, U.S. Court of Appeals, and U.S. Supreme Court, with index of 30+ amicus curiae briefs filed by CJLF in cases ranging from panhandling ordinances to the death penalty.

    Death Penalty Links from MegaLaw.Com. (200+)

    Outstanding collection of free links to Death Penalty / Capital Punishment Law: Court Decisions, U.S. Constitution, Federal Crimes Carrying the Death Penalty, Certain Federal Procedures for Capital Cases, United States Attorneys' Manual, Forms and Procedures, State Departments of Correction, Other Web Links.

    Capital Punishment Handbook (United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeal 2006)

    Handbook on the death penalty, with citations to federal and state cases and articles; Federal death penalty procedure; Historical and statutory reviews of death penalty in Oregon, California, Washington, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, and Nevada, with case summaries, published by the United States 9th Circuit Court of Appeals. (March 10, 2006)

    Illinois Office of Appellate Public Defender - Death Penalty Materials

    Homepage of the Illinois Appellate Public Defender with discussion of death penalty issues currently before the courts and death penalty materials available to trial and appellate counsel.

    Capital Defense Network

    Online assistance for the federal capital defense lawyer, at trial, on appeal, or on habeas. Overview of federal death penalty statutes, brief bank, litigation guides, listing of legal research sites, summaries of death penalty opinions, upcoming training and seminars.

    Louisiana Public Defender Board - Death Penalty Materials.

    Homepage of the Louisiana Public Defender with discussion of death penalty issues and manuals available to trial and appellate counsel.

    "Litigating in the Shadow of Death: Defense Attorneys in Capital Cases," by Welsh S. White. (2006)

    "An absorbing account of the ways in which defense attorneys represent capital defendants, showing how highly skilled defense attorneys are able to avoid death sentences for their clients in even the most aggravated cases, and how a group of dedicated lawyers have begun to transform the public's perception of capital punishment by revealing the extent to which innocent defendants are being sentenced to death."

    National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers: Death Penalty Defense.

    Lawyer's group against the death penalty, providing capital defense updates, critical "information", publications for capital defense, internet resources and links.

    New York State Defenders Association: New York Capital Defense.

    Current Death Penalty News (scores of recent news articles nationwide); Special Reports; Law Reviews and Scholarly Articles; Death Penalty News Archives; Capital Defense Research Links. (New York emphasis)

    "Conducting the Penalty Phase of a Capital Case," by O. H. Eaton, Jr., Florida Circuit Judge. (2006)

    Detailed Handbook of Florida death penalty trial procedures for Judges, from guilty verdict to jury instructions and sentencing orders. (October 1, 2006)

    FindLaw Search: U.S. Supreme Court Decisions 1893-present.

    Full text of all United States Supreme Court Opinions from 1893, with seach by party, citation, browse by year, or full-text.

    FedWorld Search: U.S. Supreme Court Decisions 1937-1975.

    Full text of over 7,000 United States Supreme Court Opinions from 1937-1975, U.S. Reports Volume 300-422, with search engine. From FedWorld/Flite.

    Findlaw: Capital Punishment and the Death Penalty.

    Historical Information on the Death Penalty: History of Death Penalty Laws, The U.S. and the Death Penalty; The U.S. Constitution and the Death Penalty: Death Penalty Challenges, Temporary Abolition of the Death Penalty, Reinstatement of the Death Penalty; Death Penalty Trends: Recent Developments, Recent Death Penalty Statistics; Capital Punishment Laws: Capital Punishment at the Federal Level.

    Federal Judicial Center Resources for Managing Death Penalty Trials and Habeas Corpus Review of Capital Convictions

    Resource Guide for Managing Capital Trials, 59 pg, (2004); Resource Guide for Managing Capital Habeas Review, 32 pg, (2004); Forms for General Pretrial Orders, Appointment of Counsel, Orders appointing retained counsel, Order appointing second counsel, Notice of Intent to Seek the Death Penalty, Orders setting deadline for notice of intent, Orders appointing mitigation experts, Order appointing psychologist, Order appointing investigator, Sample case budget from Death Penalty Resource Counsel, Memorandum re interim payments for experts, Memorandum re counsel fees and expenses, Order of referral of cost management to magistrate judge, Order raising hourly rate for retained counsel, Order re funds for experts and consultants, Order reducing fees for non-death penalty case, Memoranda re: budget meeting with counsel, Order granting use of jury questionnaire, Sample juror questionnaires, Order to file joint proposed juror questionnaire, Descriptions of jury selection procedures, Introduction to voir dire and selection process, Script for jury voir dire, Order on motion for anonymous jury, Jury Instructions-Guilt Phase, Preliminary penalty-phase instructions, Penalty phase charges, Special-findings forms; Habeas forms.

    Resource Guide for Managing Capital Cases. (Federal Judicial Judicial Center April 2004)

    Step by step handbook on the trial of a capital case in federal court, by Molly Treadway Johnson and Laural L. Hooper, published by the Federal Judicial Center.

    Historic U.S. Supreme Court Death Penalty Opinions 1937-1987. (LII - Cornell University)

    Full text of 20 historic United States Supreme Court Death Penalty Opinions, from 1937 to 1987, including Furman, Gregg, Witherspoon, McKlesky, Booth, and Thompson.

    U.S. Supreme Court Death Penalty Opinions (LII - Cornell University)

    Full text and syllabi of U.S. Supreme Court Death Penalty Opinions.

    Links to State Statutes and Legislation.

    Complete set of links to statutes, legislation, administrative codes, and constitutions, state-by-state, from Scruffy.

    Focus on the Death Penalty: Historical Death Penalty Decisions. (Univ Alaska Anchorage)

    Short list of historical Death Penalty Opinions 1972-1990.

    Justice Blackmun Dissenting Opinion in Callins v. Collins.

    Full text of the Dissenting Opinion of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Harry Blackmun in the 1994 appeal of a Texas Death Row inmate in Callins v. Collins ("From this day forward, I no longer shall tinker with the machinery of death. "

    The United States Supreme Court. (Findlaw Constitutional Law Center)

    History of the Court, Landmark Decisions, Bios and Commentary on Current Justices, Preview of next Term.

    The Cult of Scalia.

    A shrine to U.S. Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia, with links to his written court opinions and speeches, as well as a biography.

    "William Brennan's Judicial Legacy," by Edward J. Erler. (The Claremont Institute 1997)

    Critical article of the liberal jurisprudence of William Brennan while a Supreme Court Justice. Written by a political science professor at California State University.

    "Ineffective Assistance of Counsel Claims: The "Sleeping Lawyer" Exception to the Presumption of Justice," by Michael Mears.

    Article outlining the history of "ineffective assistance of counsel," and noting some sleeping or walking violations of the Sixth Amendment, from Michael Mears, Georgia Capital Public Defender.

    "Using Defendant's Family As a Mitigating Factor," by King and Norgard. (FSU Law Review Summer 1999)

    Florida State University Law Review article published at Volume 26, No. 4, Summer 1999, entitled: "What About Our Families? Using the Impact on Defendants' Family Members as a Mitigating Factor in Death Penalty Sentencing Hearings," by Rachel King (ACLU Legislative Counsel)and Katherine Norgard (Psychologist whose son was convicted in Arizona of murder).

    Scholarly articles from Cornell Law School Death Penalty Project.

    List of recent (2001-2007) law review articles written by Cornell University Law School faculty. (no free links)

    Capital Defense Handbook for Defendants and their Families," by Claudia Whitman and Lawson Strickland. (2005)

    "This handbook provides fundamental information about how courts operate, trial procedures, general rules concerning capital murder cases, and the appeals process. It does not cover every rule or procedure concerning capital cases; however it is a place to start. The information provided will prepare you for what to expect." A jooint project of Grassroots Investigation Project (GRIP), Equal Justice Usa / Quixote Center, and the National Death Row Assistance Network of Cure (NDRAN).

    Rick Halperin Papers, 1982-2000, compiled by Sarah Kim. (State University of New York at Albany Archives May 2005)

    This collection contains news clippings, newsletters, campaign materials, letters of plea, flyers and notices of rallies, research materials, organizational reports, and publications on the issue of the death penalty.

    "Higher Threshold for Death Penalty Is Sought," by William Glaberson. (NYTimes January 11, 2004)

    Article discussing New York appellate arguments requesting a higher standard of proof in death penalty cases so that the standard of proof would be "beyond all doubt" instead of "beyond a reasonable doubt."

    LawResearch World. (Hundreds of Countires and Research Topics, including the Death Penalty)

    Public Defenders / Defense Attorneys

    Indiana Public Defender Commission: Capital Defense.
    Standards and guidelines for the reimbursement of capital defense expenditures by the State Public Defender Commission to Indiana counties; Annual Reports; Eligible Counties; List of approved Capital Case attorneys.

    ABA Guidelines for the Appointment and Performance of Counsel in Death Penalty Cases. (Revised February 2003)

    Standards and guidelines adopted by the American Bar Association on required trial experience, caseloads, and salary for trial and appellate attorneys in capital cases. At the very least it has made a select group of attorneys in death cases very wealthy.

    Georgia Public Defender Standards Council.

    "The mission of the Georgia Public Defender Standards Council is to ensure, independently of political considerations or private interests, that each client whose cause has been entrusted to a circuit public defender receives zealous, adequate, effective, timely, and ethical legal representation, consistent with the guarantees of the Constitution of the State of Georgia, the Constitution of the United States and the mandates of the Georgia Indigent Defense Act of 2003; to provide all such legal services in a cost efficient manner; and to conduct that representation in such a way that the criminal justice system operates effectively to achieve justice."

    Georgia Capital Defenders.

    Homepage of Georgia Public Defenders who provide Death Penalty training and assistance in representation of those charged with the death penalty. Site includes articles and links.

    APublicDefender.Com: Protecting the Right to Effective Assistance of Counsel

    PD Blog with daily posts from a Connecticut Public Defender, with links to articles.

    Public Defender Dude Blog: "The Death Penalty in Los Angeles."

    "The rantings of a Public Defender constantly fighting against society's pervasive Police Industrial Complex. Enjoy the unique perspective of one whose life's work is to fight the system through the system."

    "Rare Breed: Death Penalty Lawyers Defend Rights of Politically Invisible," by Claire Duffy. (National Catholic Reporter, Oct. 5, 2001)

    Spotlight by Claire Schaeffer-Duffy on high-profile lawyers for the indigent in capital cases: Bryan Stevenson, Stephen Bright, John Holderidge.

    "Official Quits in Georgia Public Defender Budget Dispute," by Brenda Goodman. (New York Times September 7, 2007)

    News report on the head of the newly created Office of the Georgia Capital Defender, Christopher W. Adams, who quit his job after budget cuts by the legislature.

    "Georgia death penalty lawyers leaving amid budget crunch," by shannon McCaffrey. (Fort Mill Times March 15, 2008)

    News report on the Georgia Public Defender spending debacle.

    "Georgia Murder Case’s Cost Saps Public Defense System ," by Brenda Goodman. (New York Times March 22, 2007)

    Obviously slanted news report on the Georgia Public Defender spending debacle.

    Amicus: Assisting Lawyers for Justice on Death Row.

    "Amicus was set up in 1992 in memory of Andrew Lee Jones, who was executed in Louisiana in July 1991. The charity aims to help provide legal representation for those awaiting capital trial and punishment in the US and raise awareness of potential abuses of their rights." (London)

    "Ridge Doesn't Want the Legal System to be Too Fair." (Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, April 30, 2001)

    Pittsburgh Post-Gazette Editorial chastising then Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge for excluding members of the Capital Habeus Corpus Unit of the federal public defenders office in Philadelphia from a legislative attempt to provide capital defense for the indigent. (Re-posted by Fight the Death Penalty in the USA)

    "Lawyer Sabotaged Case of Client on Death Row," by Sara Rimer. (NYTimes November 24, 2000)

    He sabotaged the case by deliberately missing a deadline for filing an appeal of the sentence. "I decided that Mr. Tucker deserved to die, and I would not do anything to prevent his execution," the lawyer, David B. Smith of Greensboro, N.C., said in a recent court affidavit.

    "Death Row Law: A Maze of Technicalities, A Ray of Hope," by Stuart Taylor, Jr. (Atlantic Unbound May 5, 2000) .

    Article describing two April 2000 Supreme Court decisions as providing a ray of hope for condemned prisoners by putting some teeth in the principle that death row inmates have a right to effective counsel.

    "Justice on the Cheap: Indigent Defense," by Amy Bach. (The Nation May 21, 2001)

    Featured article on the inadequacy of indigent defense, particluarly in death penalty cases. Spotlighting Greene County, Georgia.

    Federal Death Penalty: Recommendations on the Cost and Quality of Defense.

    Recommendations prepared by the Judicial Conference of the United States, Committee on Defender Services, Subcommittee on Federal Death Penalty Cases, concerning the cost and quality of defense representation in federal death penalty cases. (May 1998) The recommendations in this report were adopted by the Judicial Conference of the United States on September 15, 1998.

    Practice Area to Assist Volunteer Death Row Lawyers, from ProBono.Net.

    This area is hosted by the ABA Death Penalty Representation Project, headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Project's Director is Elisabeth Semel, an experienced criminal defense lawyer who has handled capital cases at the trial and post-conviction stages, and the Project's Staff Attorney is Judy Gallant. The password-protected practice area contains online support and resources for its participating lawyers.

    "Florida Fights Over Death Row Lawyers," by Warren Richey. (Chriustian Science Monitor February 20, 2003)

    "Bush's proposed budget, now being debated by state lawmakers in Tallahassee, seeks to speed up executions by privatizing the capital-appeals process - moving the primary responsibility for death-row appeals to private-sector lawyers rather than lawyers working as state employees."

    "Death Penalty Representation Not Adequate, Critics Say." (Houston Chronicle, October 3, 1995)

    News article lamenting that Texas Public Defenders are appointed by the Trial Judge and are overworked and underpaid, resulting in death sentences.

    "For Free, You Get a Drunk Lawyer," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)

    Part of a long feature article, "Death Trip: The American Way of Execution." Emphasis on inadequate and substandard indigent defense.

    "Lawyers Watched As Innocent Man Served 26 Years," by Richard Meehan. (The Cool Justice Report Blog March 21, 2008)

    "Despite the alibi testimony of family members, a jury convicted Logan and debated whether to recommend the death penalty. The story would not be remarkable but for the fact that Logan not only was innocent of the crime, but two lawyers who represented the actual killer knew it and kept silent." From the Cool Justice Report, exposing wrongdoing in the politically-charged worlds of cops and courts.

    Prosecuting Attorneys

    Clark County Indiana Prosecuting Attorney
    Comprehensive information on the Death Penalty in Indiana, including statistics, executions since 1900, current death row (with photos), Indiana death penalty laws, history, and methods of execution, with factual and legal summaries of all death penalty cases since 1977; Up-to-date information on the Death Penalty in the United States; Over 1500 death penalty links arranged by subject, including 90 pro-death penalty links.

    "Trial & Error: Prosecutors Lie for Convictions" (1999 Chicago Tribune)

    A 5-part series from the Chicago Tribune on prosecutorial misconduct leading to reversal in murder cases. "A Tribune investigation found hundreds of homicide cases where prosecutors violated their oath by hiding evidence or twisting the truth. Innocent people went to prison, some to Death Row."

    "Can Prosecutors Lie?" by Thomas H. Moore. (Summer 2004)

    Georgetown Journal of Legal Ethics Note provides an overview of recent developments in prosecutorial discretion to shade the truth when conducting undercover and otherwise lawful investigations.

    "Prosecutors vs. Journalists: The Gloves Are Off," by Michael Miner. (Chicago Reader June 9, 2000)

    A column giving a critical reply to the Chicago Tribune series of articles, "Trial and Error," spotlighting the response of the National District Attorneys Association and Oregon Prosecutor Joshua Marquis.

    "Win at All Costs: Government Misconduct in the Name of Expedient Justice" (1998 Pittsburgh Post)

    A ten-part series by Bill Moushey of the Pittsburg Post-Gazette, detailing examples of government misconduct by federal agents and prosecutors. They lied, hid evidence, distorted facts, engaged in cover-ups, paid for perjury and set up innocent people in a relentless effort to win indictments, guilty pleas and convictions, a two-year Post-Gazette investigation found."

    "Prosecutorial Discretion," from Capital Punishment in Context.

    Brief narrative on the issue from Capital Punishment in Context: A Resource for College Courses. "State prosecutors have sole discretion whether to pursue the death penalty against a defendant. The financial resources available in a jurisdiction, the views of constituents and the local political climate, and the prosecutor’s own views can affect the likelihood a defendant will face the death penalty. These factors can result in disparities in how often, and for what crimes, the death penalty is sought within a state."

    "Mandatory Justice: The Death Penalty Revisited - The Role of the Prosecutor." (The Constitution Project February 2006)

    A distinguished panel, but with a clear anti-death penalty slant, make up The Constitution Project, Death Penalty Initiative. Their recommendations include (Page 95): 28. Prosecutors should provide “open-file discovery” to the defense in death penalty cases; 29. Prosecutors should establish internal guidelines on seeking the death penalty in cases that are built exclusively on eyewitness identifications and statements of informants and co-defendants; 30. Prosecutors should engage in a period of reflection and consultation seeking the death penalty; 31. All capital jurisdictions should establish a Charging Review Committee to review prosecutorial charging decisions in death eligible cases.

    "Chapter 5 - Prosecutor's Selection of Cases for Capital Punishment."

    Illinois Governor's Commission on Capital Punishment: Report to Governor Ryan. (April 12, 2002) Long-awaited report from the Illinois Commission on Capital Punishment, established by Governor George Ryan shortly after he instituted a moratorium on executions in the state of Illinois in 2000, following the highly publicized "exonerations" of 13 death row inmates since 1976. The report concludes with several controversial recommendations, all restricting the ability of prosecutors to seek a death sentence and the judge and jury's power to deliver one.

    California Disrict Attorneys: "A Prosecutor's Perspective on the California's Death Penalty." (March 19, 2003)

    Comprehensive research study prepared by the California District Attorneys Association and Attorney General, rebutting the claims of death penalty opponents that California's death penalty system is flawed.

    "Death By Discretion: Who Decides Who Lives and Dies in the United States of America?" by Lucy Adams. (July 1, 2005)

    Lengthy article from AllBusiness.Com examining the arbitrariness of the death penalty system in America.

    "Never Trust a Prosecutor," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)

    Part of a long feature article, "Death Trip: The American Way of Execution." Emphasis on prosecutorial misconduct.

    "Prosecutor-Turned Author Blasts Death Penalty," by Len Lazarick. (Chicago Examiner January 24, 2008)

    News article highlighting the anti-death penalty views of best selling author Scott Turow, and his visit to Maryland on behalf of Maryland Citizens Against State Executions.

    "Prosecutor Debates Philosopher on Death Penalty." (University of Delaware UDaily April 5, 2006)

    News report on death penalty debate at the University of Delaware between Jeffrey Reiman, professor of philosophy at American University, and Delaware state prosecutor, Steven Wood.

    "Prosecutor Discretion: Opting Against Death" by Monroe Freedman. (Legal Times October 16, 1995)

    Article addressing the ethical dilemma of Prosecutors who refuse to file death penalty cases and who are publicly against capital punishment. Opinion and Commentary by Monroe Freedman.

    "Attorney General, Capital Punishment: Prosecutors and the Death Penalty," by Liliana Segura. (The Nation March 29, 2007)

    Conspiracy-minded article written by anti-death penalty activist. "As the scandal over the US Attorney purge intensifies, each day brings stark revelations. From intimidating phone calls made to prosecutors' homes to incriminating e-mails from the office of former White House counsel Harriet Miers, to the lurking shadow of Karl Rove."

    Robert T. Johnson, District Attorney of Bronx County v. George E. Pataki, Governor

    Opinion of New York State Supreme Court authorizing the removal of the Bronx District Attorney from the prosecution of the murder of a police officer based upon his vocal unwillingness to consider pursuit of a death sentence.

    "Geography Determines Death Sentences." (ACLU March 8, 2002)

    "Most people are shocked to find that whether the death penalty is imposed is determined more by where the crime was committed and the capital trial took place than the facts of the actual case. Differences in plea bargaining policies and death penalty trial decisions exist even within the same state."

    "Guarding Death's Door: How Do Prosecutors Really Decide?" by John Cloud. (Time Archive July 14, 2003)

    How do prosecutors really decide whether to seek the ultimate penalty in murder cases? An in-depth look at a D.A.'s struggle to ensure that only the guilty go to the death chamber. Profile of Texas D.A. Ronald Earle.

    "D.A. Can Afford to Prosecute With a Vengeance," by Steve Brewer. (Houston Chronicle February 3, 2001)

    Article showing the budget restraints of some Texas prosecutors in smaller rural counties, as opposed to big city offices, in prosecuting death penalty cases.

    "Prosecutorial Discretion and Arbitrariness in Administration of the Death Penalty," by Denise Lieberman. (October 18, 2001)

    Presentation by Denise Lieberman, Legal Director of the American Civil Liberties Union of Eastern Missouri as part of a conference sponsored by the St. Louis University School of Law on October 18, 2001, "The Death Penalty on Trial: Public Tribunal on Missouri's Capital Punishment System.

    "America's Most Vengeful Prosecutor: The Death Penalty's Favourite District Attorney Resigns." (The Economist February 21, 2008)

    News article on the forced resignation of Harris County, Texas District Attorney Chuck Rosenthal, who sent 36 defendants to death row. The tenor of the article makes the author's anti-death penalty bias clear.

    A Deadly Distinction: Harris County (Houston Chronicle Special Report: February 3, 2001)

    Harris County is a pipeline to death row. A four-part series examines why, and explores whether justice is served. Includes photo and short summary of all 60 men from Harris County executed since 1976, Texas poll results, and table of statistics from Texas Department of Criminal Justice showing list of Texas executions and Current Texas Death Row.

    "Prosecutors Are Master Framers," by Hans Sherrer. (Justice Denied, the Magazine for the Wrongly Convicted)

    Strong editorial - "No police wrongdoing can ever see the light of a courtroom without the complicity of a willing prosecutor. To one degree or another, all frame-ups of people are orchestrated by prosecutors acting behind the scenes."

    "Inside the Mind of the Prosecutor Who Put Away 5 of 7 Connecticut Death Row Inmates," by Paul Bass. (Hartford Advocate December 13, 2001)

    "Nothing personal. John Connelly is just doing his job. That's what he says, anyway. People commit gruesome murders. Connecticut's death penalty law covers those murders. So Connelly, a prosecutor, convinces juries or judges to send those killers to their own deaths. He is Connecticut's--and New England's--death penalty king."

    "Prosecutorial Wrongdoing and the People Who Enable It," by Chris Adams. (Death Watch March 2004)

    Short article on the recent federal death penalty trial and appeals of Jay Lentz in Virginia, where the trial Judge accused the AUSA of planting inadmissible evidence for the jurors in the jury room (strongly slanted to defense), from the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers.

    Book Review: "Arbitrary Justice: The Power of the American Prosecutor," by Angela J. Davis. (2007).

    Short book review from Caryl Lynn Segal, Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice, University of Texas at Arlington. "Davis reminds readers of how legislatures across the country have been stripping judges of discretion by enactment of sentencing guidelines, mandatory sentencing and mandatory minimums, while enhancing the power of the prosecutor."

    Directory of Prosecuting Attorneys, Attorneys General, and U.S. Attorneys on the Net. (Eaton County Prosecutor)

    Directory of Prosecuting Attorneys, Attorneys General, and U.S. Attorneys on the Net. (BC Law)

    Pardon, Commutation, Clemency

    "Death Be Not Proud," by Andrew Cohen. (CBSNews January 12, 2002)
    News article on the pardons and mass commutations of Illinois Death Row inmates by outgoing Governor George Ryan. Turned into an anti-DP rant by author Andrew Cohen who claims that Ryan was "a profile in courage and honor" by teling it "like it is."

    Missouri Clemency Petitions 1990-2005. (Margaret B. Phillips, University of Missouri at St. Louis)

    Full text of 35+ Clemency Petitions filed on behalf of condemned inmates in Missouri since 1990. Provided by Missourians to Abolish the Death Penalty.

    Death Row Clemency Reports of the Ohio Adult Parole Authority.

    Full text of 33 Clemency Reports filed by the Ohio Aduly Parole Authority following a hearing in response to Clemency Petitions filed by Ohio Death Row inmates. (1999-2007)

    Response to 93 Death Penalty Clemency Petitions in Illinois, filed by Cook County State's Attorney.

    Full text of the State's Response to 93 Clemency Petitions filed by Death Row Inmates in Illinois in 2002. Directed to Illinois Governor George Ryan.

    Response to California Clemency Petition of Kevin Cooper. (January 21, 2004)

    Full text of brief filed in opposition to the Clemency Petition of California Death Row Inmate Kevin Cooper, filed by the San Bernardino District Attorney. (Posted by Criminal Justice Legal Foundation)

    "California has Wasted Enough Time on Kevin Cooper," by Michael Rushford and Sue Blake. (March 2004)

    Thorough article refuting the claims of California Death Row Inmate Kevin Cooper, shortly after clemency was denied by Governor Schwarzenegger in 2003.

    "Staying Alive: Executive Clemency, Equal Protection, and the Politics of Gender in Women’s Capital Cases," by Elizabeth Rapaport.

    Article from the Buffalo Criminal Law Review, Volume 4:967, by Elizabeth Rapaport, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico. "In this Article, I will review the matrix in which executive decisions in women’s capital clemency cases are made, a matrix supplied by modern equal protection law, the nature and scope of the clemency power, gender politics, and contemporary death row.

    Facts About Clemency. (Death Penalty Information Center)

    Listing of 241death row inmates have been granted clemency for humanitarian reasons since 1976, including 167 by Governor Ryan in Illinois; state by state description of the clemency process.

    Texas Board of Pardons and Paroles: Time for a Makeover? (Austin Chronicle, January 22, 1999)

    Short article describing the origins of the clemency powers in Texas, the corruption of its past use, and the current procedures calling for the Board to give the governor its binding "written signed recommendation and advice" on clemency petitions.

    Clemency Petition of Juan Raul Garza. (Capital Defense Network)

    Full text (101 pages) of "Memorandum in Support of Petition for Clemency and for Commutation of Sentence of Death to Sentence of Life Imprisonment Without Possibility of Release," filed by Juan Raul Garza to the President September 28, 2000.

    "Pardons, Executions, and Homicide." (University of Colorado at Denver October 2001)

    Scholarly research paper from economics professors at the University of Colorado at Denver, H. Naci Mocan and R. Kaj Gittings, suggesting that the death penalty has a deterrent effect. The paper uses as a dataset over 6,000 death sentences handed down from 1977 to 1997 in the United States. "We find a significant relationship between the execution and pardon rates and the rate of homicide. Each additional execution decreases homicides by 5 to 6, while three additional pardons generate one to 1.5 additional homicides."

    "Federal Executive Clemency in United States,1789-1995: A Preliminary Report (P.S. Ruckman, Jr.)

    Paper by Rock Valley College, Illinois Political Science Assistant Professor, P. S. Ruckman, Jr.

    Department of Justice, Office of the Pardon Attorney.

    Standards for Consideration of Clemency Petitions, Clemency Regulations, Clemency Statistics, Clemency Recipients, Congressional Testimony, FOIA.

    Criminal Justice Resources - Clemency Law, by Ken Strutin. (LLRX.Com May 29, 2007)

    Scores of links on Clemency Legal Researcgh; Statte by State links to Pardon Authority; Support Organizations; Bibliographies, from Ken Strutin (JD, MLS), an experienced law librarian, criminal defense attorney, and well-known writer and speaker.

    "Defending the Politics of Clemency," by Beau Breslin and John J.P. Howley. (81 Or. L. Rev. 231 (2002)

    Law Review article as part of the 2002 Wayne Morse Center for Law and Politics Symposium: The Law and Politics of the Death Penalty: Abolition, Moratorium, or Reform.

    "Plea for Commutation of Death Sentence of Thomas Clyde Bowling, Jr." (October 19, 2004)

    Kentucky Application for Commutation by Death Row Inmate: I. Introduction, II. Bowling Is Mentally Retarded, III. Bowling Is Innocent, IV. What Are the Lexington Police Hiding?, V. Conclusion, VI. Appendix, A. School Records, B. Affidavits, C. Citizen Support, D. Mental Retardation Information.

    Missouri: Review of Clemency Applications Supports a Moratorium. (WMCADP January 2001)
    Missouri: Review of Clemency Applications Supports a Moratorium.

    "MISCARRIAGES OF JUSTICE: Review of Missouri's Clemency Applications Supports A Moratorium on Executions," Report Prepared by Missourians to Abolish the Death Penalty (January, 2001) Research provided by Rev. Cathy Burnett, Ph.D.*, Stephana Landwehr, Ph.D., Rita Linhardt, Margaret Phillips, Jeff Stack.

    "The Texas Clemency Memos," by Alan Berlow. (Atlantic Monthly July/August 2003)

    "As the legal counsel to Texas Governor George W. Bush, Alberto R. Gonzales—now the White House counsel, and widely regarded as a likely future Supreme Court nominee—prepared fifty-seven confidential death-penalty memoranda for Bush's review. Never before discussed publicly, the memoranda suggest that Gonzales repeatedly failed to apprise Bush of some of the most salient issues in the cases at hand."

    Pardon Power Blog.

    This blog is dedicated to following the very latest news regarding presidential pardons and the pardon power (or clemency powers) as exercised in each state. Blog Posts by State; Useful Links; Commentary and Research; Presidential Pardons Throughout History; Other Great Blogs. Owner: P.S. Ruckman, Jr., Associate Professor of Political Science, Rock Valley College, Rockford, Illinois.

    "Petitions for Life: Executive Clemency in Missouri Death Penalty Cases," by Cathleen Bennett.

    From the Richmond Journal of Law and the Public Interest (2000). "The thesis of this article is that low reversal rates mean serious errors are not being detected and corrected. The research will focus on Missouri, which has very low reversal rates of 15% in federal court and 20% in state court."

    State University of New York, University at Albany Archives

    (January 10, 2006) -- The University at Albany announced several additions to its National Death Penalty Archive (NDPA), including The Clemency Petitions in Capital Cases Collection and source materials for David Von Drehle's Among the Lowest of the Dead. The NDPA also added supplements to two collections, the Hugo Adam Bedau Papers and the Alvin Ford Collections. Collection attempts to gather all death penalty clemency petitions filed in the United States during the modern era of capital punishment.

    "Bush's Death Penalty Dodge," by Alan Berlow. (Salon.Com June 12, 2000)

    The Texas governor has issued his first reprieve in a death penalty case (Ricky McGinn). The question is whether he's seen the light or is just playing politics.

    Texas: Board of Pardons and Paroles.

    "The Texas Clemency Memos," by Alan Berlow. (Atlantic Monthly July/August 2003)
    "Officials React To Ryan Pardons, Clemency Decision." (KETV7 Omaha January 11, 2003)
    "Justice Reconsidered - Illinois Empties Death Row." (PBS NewsHour With Jim Lehrer Transcript January 13, 2003)
    "An Appeal for the Life of Ken Biros," Ohio Clemency Petition. (Ohio Death Penalty Information January 2, 2007)
    Governors Under the Gun on Clemency. (National Center for Policy Analysis 1999)
    "Why Tookie Williams Deserves Clemency," by DeWayne Wickham. (USA Today December 5, 2005)
    Pardon Me: 12 Steps to a Presidential (Federal) Pardon, by Jerome P. Mullins, Attorney at Law. (1999)
    State of California, Office of the Governor: How to Apply for a Pardon.
    How Does a Governor Grant Clemency - With a Signed Note," by Daniel Engber. (Slate.Com November 30, 2005)
    Montana Board of Pardons and Parole: Executive Clemency Report 1984-2006.
    Killing Without Mercy: Clemency Procedures in Texas. (Amnesty International, June 1999)
    "Death Row Dilemma," by Erica C. Barnett. (Austin Chronicle, January 22, 1999)
    Karla Faye Tucker Challenges Texas Clemency Procedures. (CNN, January 20, 1998)
    Illinois Governor Edgar Commutes Death Sentence of Guinevere Garcia. (CNN, January 16, 1996)
    "Governors Shy From Clemency Power," by Kavan Peterson. (Stateline.Org January 30, 2003)
    Book Review of "Justice Denied: Clemency Appeals in Death Penalty Cases," by Cathleen Burnett. (2003)
    A Letter to Missouri Governor Carnahan On The Pardon of Darrell Mease after visit by Pope John Paul II. (Inactive link)
    State by State Pardon Applications Forms from RecordGone.Com.
    State by State Clemency Resources from the Criminal Justice Policy Foundation.

    Religion and the Church

    Death Penalty and Religion Links by The Theology Library.
    Thorough collection of 104 mainly religious death penalty links on the web, almost entirely anti-death penalty, put together by Gerald Darring, instructor at Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama.

    Pope John Paul II Encyclical Letter Against Capital Punishment.

    Encyclical letter "Evangelium Vitae" (The Gospel of Life) issued by Pope John Paul II on March 25, 1995 after four years of consultations with the world's Roman Catholic bishops, declaring that execution is only appropriate "in cases of absolute necessity" to defend society. (Paragraphs 27, 40, 56)

    "The Death Penalty in Light of the Ontology of the Person: The Significance of Evangelium Vitae," by Thomas R. Rourke. (January 2, 2002)

    Presented as part of a conference sponsored by the Pew Forum in 2002, A Call for Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty. Thomas R. Rourke is Assistant Professor of Political Science at Clarion University. Originally published in Communio: International Catholic Review 25 (Fall, 1998), 397-413.

    Papal Encyclicals Online.

    Full text of Papal Encyclicals of the Catholic Church 1227 to the present.

    Catholics Against Capital Punishment.

    National advocay group against capital punishment, with a good set of mostly anti-death penalty links, with an emphasis on religion; New language of Catechism of the Catholic Church on the death penalty; Bibliography of statements by U.S. Bishops on Capital Punishment.

    National Conference of Catholic Bishops.

    United States Catholic Conference. Links to statements on the Death Penalty from individual bishops, state and national catholic conferences, and from the Vatican.

    Choose Life: Catholic Teaching and the Death Penalty. (Indiana Catholic Conference)

    Anti-Death Penalty policy statement, quoting from Pope John Paul II and the U.S. Catholic Bishops, suggesting that Life Without Parole passed by Indiana legislature is sufficient to meet the need to protect society. Brochure: The Death Penalty - No Justice, No Healing, No Closure.

    The Pope Versus the Death Penalty by Fr. David C. Trosch. (1999)

    Pro-Death Penalty essay criticizing the anti-death penalty policies of Pope John Paul II, with links and citations to the Sequential Authority Structure and the Catechism of the Catholic Church.

    "Rethinking Capital Punishment," by Janet E. Smith. (Catholic.Net September 10, 1998)

    Short column from perhaps one who approves of capital punishment, struggling to explain the opposition of Pope John Paul, and encouraging catholics to reconsider their position. "But perhaps there is something about a culture of death that distorts capital punishment and causes it to be perceived as just one more manifestation of the use of death as a solution to problems."

    "Compare Presidential Candidates on Issues Important to Christian Voters," by Mary Fairchild. (About.Com 2008)

    Compare the 2008 presidential candidates (McCain, Clinton, Obama, Huckabee) on issues that are particularly important to Christian voters. Abortion, Death Penalty, Education, Faith-Based Programs, Iraq War, Gay Marriage, Stem Cell Research.

    Christianity and the Death Penalty. (Justice For All)

    Thorough Pro-Death Penalty article with significant Biblical citations and references, with commentary from Justice For All. From "Death Penalty and Sentencing Information in the United States," by Dudley Sharp. (1997)

    Capital Punishment and Christianity. (Wesley Lowe)

    Thorough Pro-Death Penalty article with significant Biblical citations and references, with commentary from Wesley Lowe.

    "Candidates Asked "What Would Jesus Do?" About the Death Penalty. (Sentencing Law and Policy Blog November 29, 2007)

    Self-proclaimed Christian conservative Republican candidates were asked by a young person to answer the question: "what would Jesus do" about the death penalty. When pressed for an answer, Mike Huckabee said "Jesus was too smart to ever run for public office. That's what Jesus would do."

    "Republicans Are Asked: What Would Jesus Do?" by Mark Silva. (Chicago Tribune November 29, 2007)

    "For a presidential contest in which religion – and indeed the religious faith of at least one candidate – will play a certain role in the choices which many voters make, two questions loom large here: Is every word in the Bible true, and “what would Jesus do’’ about capital punishment."

    "Limiting Religious Arguments in Capital Cases," John H. Blume and Sheri Lynn Johnson. (December 2000)

    This scholarly article details the use of religious arguments by both the prosecution and defense in capital cases. Unbelievably, the authors conclude generally that the prosecution, but not the defense, should be restrained in making such arguments. Perhaps their background as law professors and Directors of the Cornell Death Penalty Project biased their judgments. (Excerpted from “Don’t Take His Eye, Don’t Take His Tooth, and Don’t Cast the First Stone: Limiting Religious Arguments in Capital Cases, in William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 9:1 (December 2000). Reposted at The Pew Froum.)

    PFADP: People of Faith Against the Death Penalty Homepage.

    A special project of the North Carolina Council of Churches, dedicated to the abolition of capital punishment. Statements from prominent North Carolinans from the Ex-Governors to Dean Smith. Short commentary on "7 Myths of the Death Penalty."

    California People of Faith Working Against the Death Penalty.

    California People of Faith Working Against the Death Penalty is a statewide interfaith organization.working to educate and mobilize faith communities to act to abolish the death penalty in California.

    "A Call For Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty" Conference held January 25, 2002.

    From the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life. Resources include list of attendees, transcipts of the conference, news reports on the conference, as well as a bibliography, filmography, essays, and death penalty links.

    Religious Organizing Against the Death Penalty Project.

    Links to statements on capital punishment from most major religions in the United States.

    Christian Bible Study and Games: The Capital Punishment Bible Quiz.

    A 10 question Bible quiz on the issue of capital punishment. Answers are submitted, and the score is automatically tabulated with citations and explanations of correct and incorrect answers.

    "The Death Penalty - Cruelty or Necessity?" (Sept/Oct 1999)

    An editorial from a biblical perspective from the Brethren Revival Fellowship. (Craig Alan Myers and Harold S. Martin)

    The Bible's Teaching on Capital Punishment by Logos Christian Resources.

    Online ministry with citations from Old and New Testament and good discussion supporting Capital Punishment, David L. Brown Th.M. (1992)

    "God and the Death Penalty," by Pastor Bob Enyart. (Theology Online)

    Pro -DP Biblical responses to "Turn the other Cheek"; "He who is without sin among you, let him throw a stone at her first"; "But if you do not forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses."; "Judge not, that you be not judged."; "Vengeance is Mine, I Will repay," says the Lord."; "Thou shalt not kill".

    "Wrestling With the Death Penalty" by Andy Prince. (Catholic Youth Update)

    "Many families of murder victims know only emptiness because a person now on Death Row has taken the life of their loved one. The role of the Church must be to provide support for the family and healing between the offender and the victim's family." From AmericanCatholic.Org Youth Update.

    "Capital Punishment: Right or Wrong?" by Randy Alcorn.

    Short pro-death penalty essay from Randy Alcorn, Director of Eternal Perspective Ministries, with emphasis on ethics and religion.

    "The Death Penalty as Rejection of God's Justice," by Peter Gathje.

    Anti-death penalty article from Peter Gathje, teacher of Christian Ethics and Peace Studies at the Christian Brothers University, Memphis, Tennessee.

    "Resolution Opposing Capital Punishment and Racism in Sentencing." (National Council of Churches of Christ)

    Ant-Death Penalty Resolution adopted by the National Council of Churches of Christ Governing Board, May 26, 1988.

    LifeIssues.Net - Anti-Death Penalty Library.

    Science, Commentary, Homilies, Papers, Links, Documents. Strongly anti-death penalty with emphasis on the catholic religion. Anti-Death Penalty News since 01/01/02.

    "The Death Penalty: From Cycles of Evil to Circles of Healing," by Larry Reimer. (United Church of Gainesville April 9, 2000)

    Pro-LWOP sermon by Larry Reimer of United Church of Gainesville. "Big Issues Revisited at the Turn of the Millennium: The Death Penalty, From Cycles of Evil to Circles of Healing. Also gives short pro and con on the death penalty.

    Pro-Capital Punishment by Kerby Anderson of Probe Ministries International.

    Thoughtful pro-death penalty essay addressing the arguments of abolitionists, with emphasis on religion by Kerby Anderson of Probe Ministries International.

    Presbyterian General Assemblies Statements in Opposition to the Death Penalty.

    Links to major public policy statements opposing the death penalty from the Presbyterian General, issued in 1959, 1977, 1978, and 1985.

    "U.S. State Efforts Advance to Abolish Death Penalty," A UMNS Report by Kathy L. Gilbert. (United Methodist Church)

    Recent headlines, news archives, anti-death penalty article on recent successes of the cause.

    United Methodists Against the Death Penalty. (UMADP)

    The Death Penalty Network was designed for United Methodists to encourage each other, to share ideas, worship materials, sermons, success stories, and anti-death penalty legislation.

    A Theological Essay Against Capital Punishment by Kenneth Cauthen.

    Excerpts from Chapter 8 of the book "Toward a New Modernism" by Kenneth Cauthen, with an emphasis on theology and ethics. (1997)

    Pro-CapitalPunishment.Com, a A Study Outline by Gary Henry.

    Advocates the use of capital punishment and contains a detailed study outline on the subject, primarily from a biblical perspective.

    "Church Teaching and the Death Penalty," by Paul J. Surlis. (Vincentian Center Spring 1995)

    "Because we have alternative means to protect society, we ought to oppose the death penalty in principle and in practice because it feeds vindictive attitudes, contributes to the spiral of violence, detracts attention from the socio-economic reforms, and denies the power of God's forgiveness."

    "Capital Punishment: A Personal Statement," by Charles Colson. (Prison Fellowship)

    Personal pro-DP statement of Charles Colson of Prison Fellowship and Watergate infamy.

    "The Death Penalty: A Christian Defense," by Tom Flannery. (Christian.Com 2000)

    As Paul wrote, governments have the moral authority and obligation to execute capital criminals (Rom. 13:1-4). The sooner we recognize this as a society, the better off we'll all be.

    "Three Good Reasons for Supporting the Death Penalty," by James L. Melton. (1997)

    Pro-DP essay with biblical emphasis listing three good resaons to support death penalty: The Death Penalty Honors God; The Death Penalty Is A Deterrent to Crime; The Death Penalty Is Good for the Environment. (From BibleBelievers.Com)

    "Issues of Life 2: Capital Punishment," from James & Dave's Bible Page. (2003)

    Pro-DP essay with biblical emphasis from James and Dave's Bible Page, an interactive Full Gospel Christian site: "The death of anyone-even a convicted killer-diminishes us all. But we are diminished even more by a justice system that fails to function. It is an illusion to let ourselves believe that doing away with capital punishment removes the murderers deed from our conscience...When we protect guilty lives, we give up innocent lives in exchange."

    "The Death Penalty: One Atheist's Position," by Ellen Johnson. (1998)

    Personal statement of Ellen Johnson, President of American Atheists.

    Mishpatim: On Delivering Punishment to Fit the Crime.

    Thoughts on the Torah and punishment by Rabbi Stephen Pearce, Jewish Bulletin of Northern California.(1996)

    "Judaism's Pro-Death Penalty Tradition," by Steven Plaut. (JewishPress.com April 23, 2004)

    "The Bible makes it crystal clear that the way one acknowledges that human souls are created in God`s image and deserving of respect and dignity is through capital punishment."

    "Living in the Death Penalty Capital," by Rabbi Samuel M. Stahl. (Sermon May 7, 1999)

    Anti-DP sermon by Rabbi Samuel M. Stahl, with some interesting conclusions about Nathan Leopold and his "fifty years worth of effort devoted to expiation for his crime" of murdering Bobby Franks.

    "Jewish Death Row Inmate Fights for Religious Freedom," by Teresa Strasser. (Jewish Bulletin, April 12, 1996)

    Article on the struggles of California Death Row inmate Chay'im Ben-Sholom to exercise his orthodox jewish faith, demanding kosher prison diet.

    1846 Essay by Church of Christ Minister Campbell on Capital Punishment

    The 19th Century Restoration Movement, founded by Alexander Campbell, spawned several distinct religious groups including the Churches of Christ, the Christian Churches, and the Disciples of Christ. This long essay, entitled "Is Capital Punishment Sanctioned by Divine Authority?", details the church view on capital punishment.

    1847 Reply to Campbell on Capital Punishment by Tolbert Fanning

    Tolbert Fanning on Capital Punishment: A Reply to Alexander Campbell. From: "CAPITAL PUNISHMENT. NO.2" in: Christian Review, Vol. 4 (Franklin College, June 1847).

    Reformed Church in America Against Capital Punishment.

    Reformed Church in America Perspective on Capital Punishment, reports to the General Synod in 1965 and 1966.

    "The Death Penalty," from Evangelist Richard Ciarrocca.

    Short death penalty policy statement from Evangelist Richard Ciarrocca (Pilgrim Fundamental Baptist Press)

    "Objections to Capital Punishment Answered," by John A. Kohler, III.

    Short biblical answers to common objections raised against capital punishment. (Morris Fork, West Virginia Baptist Church)

    A Social Statement on the Death Penalty by the Evangelical Lutheran Church. (1991)

    A Statement against the Death Penalty by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, adopted by a two-thirds vote at the Churchwide Assembly of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, meeting in Orlando, Florida, August 28-September 4, 1991.

    "Capital Punishment" an article from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.

    An article on capital punishment from The Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) by John Willey Willis, as transcribed by Carl H. Horst from the New Advent Catholic Website.

    Catholic Bishops of Illinois Statement on Capital Punishment. (1996)

    Statement on Capital Punishment by the Catholic Bishops of Illinois (February 1996), with the full support of the Catholic Conference of Illinois, Archdiocese of Chicago.

    U.S. Catholic Bishops Statement on the Death Penalty. (1980)

    U.S. Catholic Bishops' Statement on Capital Punishment, Approved by the U.S. Bishops in November 1980.

    "The Death Penalty: A Right to Life Issue," by Avery Cardinal Dulles, S.J. (Pew Forum)

    Transcript of October 17, 2000 lecture by Avery Cardinal Dulles, S.J., Professor of Religion and Society at Fordham University. Posted as part of "A Call for Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty."

    "Scalia Questions Catholic Opposition to Death Penalty." (AP/Fox News February 5, 2002)

    News article on Justice Scalia's question and answer sessions with students at a religion and death penalty conference sponsored by the Pew Forum. Scalia notes the long history of the church endorsing the death penalty and suggests that it is only this Pope who caused a change in church policy. "I do not agree with the very new, latest version of the Catechism," Scalia said. "I read it, I considered it, and I decided that I disagree with it, so I am disregarding it."

    "Scalia: Catholic Contradiction Common," by Gregory Tejeda. (UPI January 28, 2002)

    United Press International news article on Justice Scalia's comments on the conflicts in the Catholic Church regarding the death penalty. "I do not agree with the very new, latest version of the Catechism," Scalia said. "I read it, I considered it, and I decided that I disagree with it, so I am disregarding it."

    "God's Justice and Ours," by Antonin Scalia, Supreme Court Justice. (11/18/2002)

    Remarks given at a conference sponsored by the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life justifying the Death Penalty. Reposted by PrisonerLife.Com.

    A Letter from the Kentucky Bishops on Capital Punishment. (1996)

    Statement on Capital Punishment by the Catholic Bishops of Kentucky. (December 1996).

    Cardinal Mahony's Views on the Death Penalty.

    "A Witness To Life: The Catholic Church and the Death Penalty," by Cardinal Roger Mahony (Speech by the Archbishop of Los Angeles delivered to the National Press Club on April 15, 2000, in Washington, DC); Press Release: May 25, 2000 - Cardinal Roger Mahony Urges Governor Gray Davis to ImposeMoratorium on CapitalPunishment.(From Attorney James Joseph Lynch, Jr.)

    "Death for Death? A Family Asks Mercy for a Son," By Claire Schaeffer-Duffy. (National Catholic Reporter January 19, 2001)

    Death Penalty aricle detailing the final days before execution of Mark Andrew Fowler, and his catholic family, including his plea for clemency before the Oklahoma Pardon and Parole Board.

    "Pro-life and Pro-Capital Punishment: Contradiction in Terms? by Anthony Gonzales. (Roman Catholic Replies)

    "It must be reiterated again and again that to defend innocent human life (the operative word being "innocent") is not inconsistent with the position that those guilty of heinous crimes should be punished to the full extent the natural and civil law allows. All of human history, including the history described in the Holy Scriptures with God's commands and the natural law are on our side."

    The Death Penalty and the Catholic Church. (St. Anthony Messenger Online)

    Religious links and articles, including The Pope's 1999 Appeal to America, Sister Helen Prejean, The Bible and Death Penalty, Cardinals Appeal for McVeigh, A Prayer to Abolish the Death Penalty, and more.

    Religious Reflections on the Death Penalty. (Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life June 5, 2001)

    Religious perspectives on the death penalty in light of recent events. Panelists representing a number of differing positions on capital punishment will reflect on the interplay of theological, ethical, political and social concerns. (With transcript and capital punishment issue paper)

    Capital Punishment, Death Penalty in Islam.

    The Islamic View of Capital Punishment. Qur'anic Criminal Justice System - "Capital Punishment, Death Penalty in Islam" - Equivalence is the Law [2:178-179], from Submission.Org.

    "Capital Punishment - A Faith Issue in an Islamic Perspective," by Dr. Shahid Athar. (Indiana University)

    Presented at the Indiana University School of Law, Sunday, May 7, 1998 by Dr. Shahid Athar. The program was moderated by Professor Norman Lefstein, Dean, Indiana University School of Law.

    "Islam and the Death Penalty," by William Schabas. (January 2, 2002)

    Presented as part of a conference sponsored by the Pew Forum in 2002, A Call for Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty. William Schabas is professor and chair of the department of law at the University of Quebec, Montreal. Originally published in William and Mary Bill of Rights Journal 9:1 (December 2000): 223-237.

    Message Supporting a Moratorium on the Death Penalty from The Dalai Lama. (The Engaged Zen Foundation)
    Message Supporting a Moratorium on the Death Penalty from The Dalai Lama. (LifeIssues.Net)

    Statement from His Holiness, Tenzin Gyatso, The Fourteenth Dalai Lama of Tibet, opposing the death penalty and encouraging an unconditional moratorium.

    Message Supporting a Moratorium on the Death Penalty from The Dalai Lama.

    Statement from the Dalai Lama, read by Kobutsu Shido at the "Creating a Legacy" event. (April 9, 1999).

    Perspective on the Death Penalty (Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance)

    Thorough article on Capital Punishment/Death Penalty (anti-death penalty), with links, from the Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. (1995-1999)

    Death Row Support Project. (Church of the Brethren)

    "The Death Row Support Project (DRSP) was conceived by Church of the Brethren members Bob and Rachel Gross in 1978. The combination of Bob's prison experience and Rachel's enjoyment of letter-writing, along with their concern about the reinstatement of the death penalty, provided the necessary ingredients for beginning this ministry."

    "Is Capital Punishment Biblical?" by Jim Watkins.

    Short anti-death penalty excerpts from the book "Death & Beyond" (1992) James N. Watkins.

    "Sentiment as Social Justice: The Ethics of Capital Punishment," by J. Daryl Charles. (Christian Research Institute 1993)

    Pro-DP essay on the role of the church in modern society: "Reducing matters of morality to private elitism, public opinion, or mushy religious sentiment will only obscure the pressing issues of our culture. How contemporary American society in the future will view the moral difference between crime and punishment depends to a great extent on the church’s involvement in ongoing cultural debate - and on the influence of CNN. Stay tuned."

    Friends Committee on National Legislation.

    Quaker anti-death penalty homepage with policy statements, legislative initiatives, and links to death penalty-related topics.

    "The Bible and Capital Punishment," from Stand to Reason. (Gregory Koukl)

    Well organized study outline discussing the Bible and the Death Penalty. (1994)

    "Life for a Life: The Bible and Capital Punishment," by James Patrick Holding.

    "So it boils down to this: The Bible allows (but does not mandate) CP. The contextual grounding within which it was applied in the Bible is now different in modern society, and we must look at the issue accordingly."

    "Throwing Stones," by Steve Merten.

    Hundreds of biblical verses in support of Capital Punishment, interpreted by a self-described pro-capital punishment catholic.

    "Biblical Justice For Baby Murderers," by Patrick Johnson.

    God's way to deal with crime is best. I'm not embarrassed to say what the punishment for the crime is anymore than I'm embarrassed to admit that child-killing is a crime! Abortionists should be killed, so that the innocent may be defended and the curse of innocent blood be lifted off our land.

    "Death Penalty Biblical, not Vengeful, Southern Seminary's Moore says," by Michael Faust. (BPNews November 13, 2001)

    "Moore, who supports the use of the death penalty, argued that Romans 13 gives the government the right to punish those who do wrong. I believe that Scripture mandates that the government take this position in order to preserve public justice and order."

    "The Right Remedy for Murder: Death," by the Ministry of the Johnston Family. (Where The Truth Hurts)

    Short pro-death penalty opinion article.

    Death Penalty Vigil from the San Antonio Peace Center.

    The peaceCENTER hosts prayer vigils on the scheduled execution dates of all Texas death row inmates; also a news feed with the latest death penalty headlines from around the country.

    Interview with Death Row Chaplain Jim Brazzil.

    Interview with Texas Death Row Chaplain Jim Brazzll from PBS Frontline.

    Interview with former Death Row Chaplain Carroll Pickett.

    Interview with Rev. Carroll Pickett, who served 16 years as Texas Death Row Chaplain, from PBS Frontline.

    "Capital Punishment: Points to Consider," by Jim Forest. (InCommunion.Com)

    Short anti-death penalty essay. "To this day priests are forbidden to kill, a law which comes down from the prohibition within the early Church of killing for all baptized persons. Consider why such a canon exists."

    Priests For Life.

    Death, whether of an unborn child or of a convicted criminal, does not bring us closer to a civilization of love, but rather feeds the mistaken and dangerous notion that killing is a solution to our problems.

    Lux Vertatis: The Death Penalty.

    Organization dedicated to the philosophy of the Catholic Church, with citations to the Catechism and the Pope.

    Unitarian Universalists For Alternatives to the Death Penalty.

    A social action group and independent affiliate of the Unitarian Universalist Association, organized in 1996, seeking to give witness resolutions of past years calling for an end to capital punishment.

    Public Opinion

    Polling Report.Com.
    Up-to-date public opinion polls on capital punishment from various sources, including Harris Polls, Gallup Polls, ABC/NBC/CNN/Fox News Polls; Also includes polls on Fear of Crime, Crime Victims, DNA, and Police.

    "More Than Two-Thirds of Americans Continue to Support the Death Penalty," by Humphrey Taylor. (Harris Poll January 7, 2004)

    Recent Harris Poll showing 69% support for death penalty. They support it even though only a minority thinks it is a deterrent and almost everyone believes that innocent people are sometimes convicted of murder. (With links to Harris Polls in 1998-2003 on the Death Penalty)

    "An Enduring Majority: Americans Continue to Support the Death Penalty," by Robert Ruby. (Pew Forum December 19, 2007)

    "Since the late 1960s, public support for the death penalty has experienced significant rises and dips, but surveys show it has never fallen below 50%. In fact, during the past 40 years, support for capital punishment has remained relatively high, reaching a peak of 80% in 1994."

    Public Opinion Polls on Capital Punishment. (2007)

    Public attitudes toward crime and criminal justice-related topics: Capital Punishment. Public opinion polls (Harris, Roper, Gallup, Sam Houston State) from the Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics (Acrobat format)

    ABC News/Washington Post Poll showing 64% - 31% in favor of Death Penalty (January 24, 2003)

    Poll showing public support for death penalty 64%-31%, but when asked preference on penalties for murder, 49% for death penalty and 45% for Life Without Parole; But a blanket commutation similar to Governor Ryan in Illinois is opposed 59%-31%. Poll was conducted by telephone January 16-20, 2003 among a random national sample of 1,133 adults. The results have a three-point error margin. Field work was done by TNS Intersearch of Horsham, Pa.

    "Support for the Death Penalty Remains High at 74%; Slight majority prefers death to LWOP," by Jeffrey M. Jones. (Gallup Poll May 19, 2003)

    "The poll, conducted May 5-7, 2003 finds 74% of Americans in favor of and 24% opposed to the "death penalty for a person convicted of murder." Gallup has asked this basic death-penalty-support question since the 1930s. Support has been above 70% over the last two years, after having been in the mid-to-high 60% range in 2000-2001. The current number is the highest support level Gallup has obtained on this measure since May 1995, when 77% supported the death penalty. The highest support level was 80% in 1994, and the lowest was 42% in 1966."

    Pew Research Center: Survey Reports (July 2003).

    Public opinion favoring death penalty shows gradual decline, down to 64% approval.

    Indianapolis Star Poll: Hoosier Faith and Values. (June 2004).

    Public opinion in Indiana favors death penalty for serious crimes 65%-28%. 75% of Republicans, 51% of Democrats, and 65% of Independents in favor.

    "As Americans Worry, Support For Death Penalty Goes Up," by Byron York. (May 21, 2003)

    News article from The Hill, noting recent rise in nationwide death penalty support and the lamentations of the Death Penalty Information Center)

    "Execution Moratorium Backed." (AP May 18, 2004)

    News article on the a poll conducted by the North Carolina Council of Churches showing almost 2/3 support for a moratorium on the death penalty in North Carolina while its fairness is studied.

    "Public Opinion on the Death Penalty for Youths," by Tom W. Smith. (December 2001)

    Only 34% favor death sentences for "juveniles." From the National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago. (Report prepared for the Joyce Foundation)

    Texas Death Penalty Info: Public Opinion.

    Gallup Polls (2001), Washington Post-ABC Poll (May 3, 2001); Gallup Poll Analyses on Moratorium (April 11, 2001).

    "Death Penalty Remains in Favor: Public Still Supports Ultimate Punishment," by Daniel Merkle. (ABCNews.Com June 20, 2000)

    June 2000 ABC Poll showing public support at 63%-27% in favor of death penalty.

    ABC News/Washington Post Poll showing 63% - 28% in favor of Death Penalty (April 20-24, 2001)

    Poll showing public support for death penalty 63%-28%, but when asked preference on penalties for murder, 46% for death penalty and 45% for Life Without Parole; 51% favor a national moratorium. Poll was conducted by telephone among a random national sample of 1,003 adults. The results have a three-point error margin. Data collection and tabulation by ICR- International Communications Research of Media, Pa.

    "What Sways US Views on Death Penalty," by John Dillin. (Christian Science Monitor June 8, 2001)

    Article on recent CSMonitor/Tipp Poll (May 3-7, 2001) showing Americans favor capital punishment by 2-1 margin.

    Bureau of Justice Statistics: Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics Online (31st Edition 2007)

    Supported by the U.S. Department of Justice, the Sourcebook brings together data from more than 100 sources about all aspects of criminal justice in the United States. These data are displayed in over 600 tables. Sourcebook is organized into six topical sections, including: Public Attitudes Toward Crime and Criminal Justice-Related Topics.Includes archives of Sourcebook since 1994.

    Public Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment. (1996)

    Public support for capital punishment by race, sex, and region 1972-96 (with graphs); 1995 Gallup Survey, from Professor Michael C. Kearl, Trinity University Socioloigist.

    Death Penalty Information Center - Public Opinion.

    Public Opinion About the Death Penalty - Alternatives to the Death Penalty; Law Enforcement Views on the Death Penalty; State polls from Texas, Michigan, Virginia, Illinois, Ohio, Texas, Kentucky, Canada and more.. (slanted commentary)

    Connecticut: "Connecticut Voters Back Death Penalty." (Quinnipiac University January 12, 2005)

    "When asked whether they favor or oppose the death penalty, Connecticut voters favor it 59 - 31 percent, according to a Quinnipiac University poll released today. When offered the alternative, however, of life in prison with no chance of parole, voters prefer the life option over the death penalty 49 - 37 percent."

    Ohio State Survey Shows Ohioans Support Death Penalty 74% - 23%. (October 1999)

    The College of Social and Behavioral Sciences' Center for Survey Research at Ohio State University has conducted a study examining the opinions of Ohioans regarding the use of the Death Penalty. The information for this survey was gathered through telephone interviews conducted from October 8, 1999, through October 31, 1999, with 819 randomly selected adults throughout the state of Ohio. 74% of the respondents were in favor of capital punishment.

    "The Case Against the Death Penalty: Public Opinion," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (July 1992)

    Short summary of anti-death penalty argument that public support for the death penalty disappears when given the option of Life Without Parole plus restitution.

    "Why State Executions are Dropping," by Kris Axtman. (Christian Science Monitor December 19, 2001)

    Article examining the reasons for a drop in the number of executions nationwide in 2001. "For the first time since the death penalty was reinstated a quarter century ago, the number of executions has fallen for two consecutive years. Critics point to a decline in popularity of death penalty. Supporters see aberrant year."

    "Despite Polls and Setbacks, Death Penalty Foes Struggle On," by Kristen Campbell. (Religion News, August 28, 1997)

    Short anti-Death Penalty article claiming soft spot in public support favoring death.

    "Public Support Weakening, But the Death Penalty Will Be Slow to Die" by Michael Kroll. (CSIndy.Com February 16, 2000)

    Anti-Death Penalty editorial, suggesting that the recent moratorium in Illinois, the defeat of George W. Bush in New Hampshire, the stance of Pope John Paul, and the film Dead Man Walking, have made a significant impact on public opinion.

    Methods of Execution

    "Lethal Injection on Trial: An Analysis of the Arguments in Baze v. Rees," by David Masci. (Pew Forum December 19, 2007)
    News article discussing the issues raised in Baze v. Rees, relating to the administraion of lethal injection in Kentucky, which is scheduled for decison by the U.S. Supreme Court in May/June 2008.

    Supreme Court Docket - Baze v. Rees, No. 07-5439.

    Summary of issues to be decided by the U.S. Supreme Court in Baze v. Rees. Official opinions of the Supreme Court of Kentucky (2006) and the U.S. Supreme Court Cert. Granted (2007); Docket Sheet From the U.S. Supreme Court; U.S. Supreme Court Briefs filed Petitioner and Respondent. (PDF files)

    Clark County Prosecuting Attorney - Methods of Execution

    State by state breakdown of execution methods, with statutory citations from each state; Descriptive summary of execution protocol and photos of current approved execution methods: Lethal Injection, Electrocution, Lethal Gas, Hanging, and Firing Squad; Indiana historical methods of execution.

    Bureau of Justice Statistics: Capital Punishment 1993-2006

    Yearly publication of the U.S. Department of Justice with detailed statistics and history of the death penalty in the U.S. Demographics (race, age, gender, education, criminal history) on those executed and current death row; Number on U.S. death row since 1953; Number executed since 1930 and since 1977 by state and by year; List of jurisdictions with and without death penalty, with summary of statutes and recent statutory changes; Methods of execution and minimum age by state; Time on death row of those executed. Availability lags approximately one year behind.

    Death Penalty Information Center

    Methods of Execution, state by state; Total number of executions since 1976 by method used; Description of Each Method; Botched Executions; LETHAL INJECTION: National Moratorium on Executions Emerges After Supreme Court Grants Review.

    "Lethal Injection on Trial," by Nathan Thornburgh. (Time February 27, 2006)

    "Florida prison personnel struggled behind closed doors for 33 min. to properly insert the long tubes into Demps' veins. When the curtains finally opened, as they are meant to so witnesses can observe the final moments, Demps, strapped to a gurney, addressed the group in a trembling voice. "They butchered me back there."

    "Methods of Execution," by Tom Head. (About.Com)

    Brief overview of each authorized method of execution with photo.

    Florida Corrections Commission Report: Methods of Execution & Execution Protocols. (September 1997) (Inactive Link)

    State by state comparisons of execution methods, short histories, costs, and detailed protocols. Commission created in the wake of several botched electrocutions in Florida, and a public debate over whether to change to lethal injection.

    Methods of Execution. (Capital Punishment - U.K.)

    A listing of the approved methods of execution in the United States and worldwide throughout history (electrocution, lethal injection, gas chamber, firing squad, hanging, beheading, burning at stake, guillotine), with a summary on the history and procedures of each, and photos.

    "The History of the Guillotine," by Mary Bellis. (About.Com)

    Short history of the guillotine and the French Revolution.

    Methods of Execution. (Capital Punishment - U.S.A.)

    A listing of the approved methods of execution in the United States (electrocution, lethal injection, gas chamber, firing squad, hanging), with a summary on the history and procedures of each, and photos of each.

    Methods of Execution. (Matt Robinson Appalachian State University .)

    Simple links to Death Penalty Information Center, but with excellent hanging, lynching, beheading, gas chamber, electric chair, firing squad, lethal injection gurney, Tiny Davis, Sadaam photos.

    Methods of Execution. (High School Curriculum Michigan State Univ)

    A listing of the approved current methods of execution in the United States (electrocution, lethal injection, gas chamber, firing squad, hanging) with a short summary on the history and procedures of each. (with photos)

    The Shocking Truth About Death in the Electric Chair.

    Thorough and well-referenced anti-chair article from Karl Keys at Capital Defenders Toolbox, detailing the gruesome psysiology of death by electrocution and the rejection of this method of execution on animals and humans by almost all states; Summaries of botched electrocutions and some history of execution methods, state by state; Detailed history of Kentucky Electric Chair.

    Electric Current through an Electric Chair.

    Entry in The Physics Factbook by April Dunetz, edited 2001 by Glenn Elert.

    The Electric Chair. (Capital Punishment USA)

    History, Women and the Chair, Modern Electrocutions, When Things Go Wrong, Execution Procedure, State by State Use of Electric Chair.

    "Electric Chair Becomes Rarity," by Stephen Gurr. (Augusta Chronicle May 20, 2004)

    Short news article on the upcoming electrocution in South Carolina of James Neal Tucker. With Stats showing when each method of execution was used last. (Repposted by AikenOnline.Com)

    Glass v. Louisiana, 471 U.S. 1080 (1985) (Brennan Dissent)

    A U.S. Supreme Court case denying certiorari, where the death row inmate challenges the method of execution (electric chair) as cruel and unusual. The dissenting opinion of Justice William Brennan details the constitutional history of the method and the gruesome effects on the human body.

    "Death and Money: The History of the Electric Chair," by Mary Bellis. (About.Com)

    Short history of the electric chair and the Edison / Westinghouse wars.

    Electric Chair: History.

    Short, but well documented, electric chair history by Ted Frank at the AFU and Urban Legends Newsgroup "alt.folklore.urban,misc.legal" (1993)

    Electric Chair: History.

    Short article on Thomas Edison and the electric chair by Terry Chan at the AFU and Urban Legends Newsgroup "alt.folklore.urban,misc.legal"

    Execution by Electric Chair, from Wikipedia.

    Encyclopedia entry reviewing the worldwide practice of execution by electrocution throughout history.

    "Tennessee Performs First Electric Chair Execution Since 1960," by Clint Brewer and Jared llen. (Nashville City Paper September 13, 2007)

    News article on the execution of Daryl Keith Holton. Holton, 44, became the first person to be executed by electrocution in Tennessee since 1960 and only the fourth person to be executed in the state since that same year. Holton was put to death for slaying his own children.

    "Political Suicide: Florida Lawmaker Suggests Crucifixion. (Goofball.Com January 12, 2000)

    A fed-up Florida legislator, Rep. Howard Futch, suggested the state crucify death-row inmate Thomas Provenzano, whose delusions of being Jesus Christ have helped delay his execution.

    Florida Supreme Court Opinion Upholding Constitutionality of Electric Chair.

    Thomas H. Provenzano v. Michael W. Moore. (Opinion #95973) Florida Supreme Court opinion upholding the constitutionality of the Electric Chair following the botched executions of Allen Lee Davis and Pedro Medina. (September 24, 1999)

    Photos of Allen Lee "Tiny" Davis in Electric Chair Following 1999 Florida Execution.
    Showcased as part of summary of the issues surrounding the use of the electric chair in Florida, by J. J. Maloney, from The Crime Encyclopedia. Following the execution, when the Florida Supreme Court ruled, yet again, that execution by electrocution is not unconstitutional, a dissenting justice attached three photographs of the execution to his dissent, and it became public record.

    "Capital Punishment on Trial," by Charles Elmore. (Salon Magazine, September 8, 1999)

    Article from reporter who witnessed Florida electric chair execution, concluding that the method is inhumane.

    Electric Chair: Florida.

    Press release and photo of newly constructed oak electric chair provided by the Florida Dept. of Corrections.

    Electric Chair: Florida.

    Editorial comment from Salon Magazine (Apr 1997) commenting on an electric chair malfunction in the execution of Pedro Medina and the callousness of the Florida Attorney General's statements thereafter.

    "Death Chamber Tapes Aired." (CBS News May 3, 2001)

    News report on the airing of audiotapes made of 23 Georgia executions in the electric chair from 1983-98, which are matters of public record.

    Electric Chair: Ohio

    Short history of Ohio executions by electric chair, with photo of chair. (Channel 5 TVNews 2002)

    "How Lethal Injection Works," by Kevin Bonsor.

    Detailed description of lethal injection procedures and protocol, from Howstuffworks.com, including Preparation, Witnesses, Inside the Chamber, Administering the Injections, and Who Uses Lethal Injection.

    Lethal Injection: What Really Happens.

    Texas Death Row inmate site with short description of lethal injection chemicals and effects on the body, with a photo of Texas lethal injection chamber.

    Lethal Injection. (Capital Punishment USA)

    History and procedure of lethal injection as an execution method in America. List of botched lethal injections.

    "Questioning The Myth Of a Painless Execution," by Alberta Phillips. (Austin American-Statesman 12/11/2003)

    "The American Veterinary Medical Association several years ago condemned use of pancuronium bromide to euthanize animals, saying it was inhumane. It is used to execute humans."

    "Hard to Kill: Why Can’t the U.S. Find a Suitable Execution Method?" by Daniel Guarnera. (January 4, 2007)

    "Of course, just what constitutes “cruel and unusual punishments” is a pregnant question. Some legal scholars say that the Constitution allows any punishment considered acceptable when the Constitution was passed. Others argue that if a critical mass of states decides that something is cruel then it should be applied universally. Most controversially, some judges have looked to international standards as a benchmark."

    "Attack on Texas Lethal Injections is Bogus," by Sen. Kyle Janek. (Houston Chronicle)

    Article from Texas State Senator and Anesthesiologist Kyle Janek: "Having no hope of overturning capital punishment itself at the ballot box or through the court system, a few vocal death penalty opponents, including inmates, have rolled out a new strategy attacking the inclusion of pancuronium bromide as one of the medications used in the lethal injection process." (Reposted by Criminal Justice Legal Foundation)

    "Death House Chaplain on the Pain of Executions - Should That Stop the Death Penalty?" by Randy Beamer. (WOAI October 9, 2007)

    "Some inmate's lawyers claim the first drug - a sedative - may only immobilize the inmate, so they can be in excruciating pain before they die. They just can't show it. "Hey, that's not true from what I had seen. That doesn't happen," says Houston. "And I've never seen or heard any of the other chaplains or wardens say anything that would indicate they were in any kind of pain, that it's just like going to sleep for surgery."

    "Lethal Injection Machine Manual - State of Missouri." (Fred A. Leuchter & Associates 1988)

    Lethal Injection System, Operation and Instruction Manual from the Department of Corrections and Human Resources, State of Missouri, with photos. (October 15, 1988)

    "Death on the Gurney: An Idea Made in Oklahoma," by Kevin Acers.

    Short article on the origins of lethal injection as a means of execution originating in Oklahoma, from the Oklahoma Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.

    "Lethal Injection: A Federal Killing," by Charles Madigan. (Chicago Tribune April 22, 2001)

    Questions and answers with Dr. Edward Brunner, on the details of an execution by lethal injection, and the ethics questions of involvement by medical personnel. "It's only a painless death if you're the one watching."

    Execution by Lethal Injection, from Wikipedia.

    Encyclopedia entry reviewing the worldwide practice of execution by lethal injection throughout history.

    "What Do Lawyers Know About Lethal Injection?" by Ty Alper. (2008)

    "In the wake of a number of court challenges that have forced states to go back to the drawing board with respect to lethal injection, these execution procedures should not be tinkered with . . . Yet that is exactly what has been happening, and it is an under-reported aspect of the lethal injection debate that deserves a little sunlight. (Harvard Law and Policy Review, Volume 11 (March 3, 2008)

    Lethal Injection: North Carolina.

    Short history of North Carolina execution methods and summary of lethal injection procedures, with photo of gurney. (North Caolina Department of Correction)

    Lethal Injection: California - San Quentin Operational Procedure Number 0-770 Execution by Lethal Injection. (May 15, 2007)

    Detailed lethal injection execution procedures and protocol from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation.

    Lethal Injection: State of California Lethal Injection Protocol Review. (May 15, 2007)

    This report outlines the steps taken to address any deficiencies in the existing lethal injection protocol and to ensure that it meets constitutional standards. Detailed lethal injection execution procedures and protocol from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation.

    Lethal Injection: California

    Virtual Tour and photos of current and proposed lethal injection facility at San Quentin from the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation.

    Lethal Injection: New Hampshire - "How to Build an Execution Chamber," by Dan Gorenstein (NHPR March 18, 2008)

    Transcript and MP3 audio of New Hampsire Public Radio news report. "The New Hampshire Department of Corrections has a lot of work to do. The federal government is requiring New Hampshire to execute convicted murder Gary Sampson. And Attorney General Kelly Ayotte is seeking the death penalty in the murder cases against Michael Addison and John Brooks. But right now the state doesn’t have a place to put people to death- it doesn’t even have a death row."

    "Ohio’s Lethal Injection Execution Procedures Not Fit for a Dog." (Ohio Public Defender December 31, 2003)

    Short Press Release from Ohio Public Defenders, noting that even dogs are not euthenized by the same lethal injection drugs given to inmates.

    Gas Chamber: California

    Photos of California Death Row, the execution chamber and chair for lethal gas from the California Department of Corrections.

    Gas Chamber: Mississippi

    Design requirements and operational protocol of the execution gas chamber at Mississippi State Penetentiary, by Fred Leuchter, "Expert in Execution Technology." (1989) The Report is designed "for use by all scholars so that they may determine for themselves the impossibility of the existence of the alleged German (Nazi) Gas Chambers." Includes a short history and description of the Mississippi Gas Chamber, with photos.

    Fred A. Leuchter

    Links to articles about the controversial and self-professed "Expert in Execution Technology," Fred A. Leuchter. From the Nizkor Project, "dedicated to the millions of Holocaust victims who suffered and died." Leuchter gained gained infamy for his conclusions that the chambers in WW II concentration camps could not have been used as execution gas chambers.

    Who is Fred A. Leuchter, Jr.

    Bio and links from Revisionists.Com.

    Execution by Gas Chamber, from Wikipedia.

    Encyclopedia entry reviewing the worldwide practice of execution by gas throughout history.

    Who makes electric chairs and other equipment for executions? (The Straight Dope October 13, 1995)

    Short article outlining the exploits of Fred A. Leuchter Associates who in the 1990's had become Death 'R Us, the U.S.'s only commercial supplier of execution equipment. "A prison guard's son who had become fascinated by the machinery of death, Leuchter would rehab your old electric chair, make you a new one, or if you preferred sell you a lethal injection system ($30,000), gallows ($85,000), or gas chamber ($200,000)."

    Gas Chamber: Arizona

    Short history of Arizona executions by hanging, gas chamber, and lethal injection, with photo of death chamber. (Arizona Department of Corrections)

    Gas Chamber: North Carolina

    Summary of gas chamber execution procedures in North Caolina, with photos. (North Caolina Department of Correction)

    Gas Chamber. (Capital Punishment USA)

    Detailed article on the history and procedures of execution by gas chamber in America.

    Firing Squad: Utah

    Short comment on Utah firing squads by Ted Frank at the AFU and Urban Legends Newsgroup "alt.folklore.urban,misc.legal" (1994)

    Execution by Firing Squad, from Wikipedia.

    Encyclopedia entry reviewing the worldwide practice of execution by firing squad throughout history.

    "Utah and the Use of Firing Squads." (International Justice Project)

    The history, protocol and procedure, statutes and recent news articles on Utah's use of the firing squad as a method of execution.

    "Dying the Hard Way? Firing Squads and Hanging Still Legal in Some States," by Matt Bean. (Court TV March 3, 2002)

    Article describing the experience of various states that retain the use or alternative use of hanging and firing squads as a method of execution.

    "Utah Panel Suggests Barring Firing Squads." (AP October 2, 2003)

    News article on the 2003 recommendation of the Utah Sentencing Commision to eliminate firing squads as a method of execution in Utah. (Reposted by DeadManEating Blog)

    "The History of Judicial Hanging in Britain 1735 - 1964: Hanged by the Neck Until You are Dead!" (Capital Punishment U.K.)

    Excellent discussion on the historical use of execution by hanging worldwide, with detailed description of the gallows, the noose, the hood, and hanging protocol. (photo of noose and board used in Washington state 1994)

    "Hanged by the neck until you are dead." (Capital Punishment USA)

    Detailed article on the history and procedures of execution by hanging in America.

    Hanging: Rope Knots.

    Excerpts from The Ashley Book of Knots showing the proper way to use a hangman's knot by Lee Rudolph at the AFU and Urban Legends Newsgroup "alt.folklore.urban". (1994)

    Execution by Hanging, from Wikipedia.

    Encyclopedia entry reviewing the worldwide practice of execution by hanging throughout history.

    "The Hangman's Knot: Lynching, Legal Execution and America's Struggle With the Death Penalty," by Eliza Steelwater.

    Reviews, Excerpts, and Author's Bio from 2004 book. "How did the United States come to be the only independent Western democracy still applying the death penalty today? That's the central question that "The Hangman's Knot" addresses."

    "The Nooses Knot: History of Capital Punishment by Means of Hanging."

    Gallery of gallows photos; Lynchings; Nazi Hangings; State by state list of executions.

    "Execution by Hanging - State of Delaware." (Fred A. Leuchter Associates 1990)

    Execution by Hanging, Operation and Instruction Manual from the Department of Correction, State of Delaware. (1990)

    "Execution by Hanging - State of Delaware." (Fred A. Leuchter Associates 1990)

    Execution by Hanging, Operation and Instruction Manual from the Department of Correction, State of Delaware. (1990)

    "Billy Bailey - Delaware; Hanged 25th January 1996." (Capital Punishment USA)

    Background and summary of the 1996 hanging of Billy Bailey in Delaware, perhaps the last legal hanging in America.

    "Hanged by the neck until you are dead." (Capital Punishment USA)

    Detailed article on the history and procedures of execution by hanging in America.

    "Hanging," From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Online encycyclodepia article on the history and procedures of execution by hanging worldwide, with photos.

    "The Last Public Execution in America," a book by Perry T. Ryan. (1992)

    Complete text of 26 chapter book written about the execution of Rainey Bethea on August 14, 1936, hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky, before a crowd of 20,000. The public outrage which followed resulted in the complete abolition of public executions in the United States. (with photo)

    "Witness to an Execution: A Day in the Life of a Death Row Employee," with slideshow and audio. (National Public Radio 2000)

    Slideshows and audio from interviews with the Tie-Down Team at Huntsville, Texas, and Reverend Carol Pickett. Audio from the documentary as it aired on PBS All Things Considered. Audio from the Morning Edition host Bob Edwards as he talks with Warden Willett. Join the moderated discussion.

    Interview with Death Row Chaplain Jim Brazzil.

    Interview with Texas Death Row Chaplain Jim Brazzll from PBS Frontline.

    Interview with former Death Row Chaplain Carroll Pickett.

    Interview with Rev. Carroll Pickett, who served 16 years as Texas Death Row Chaplain, from PBS Frontline.

    "Confession of an Executioner: An Interview with Don Cabana. (Amnesty International)

    Interview with Don Cabana, the former warden at Mississippi's Parchman Prison, and the author of his 1996 memoir, "Death at Midnight: The Confessions of an Executioner."

    "Gruesome Execution in 1851 Helped End Death Penalty," by Dennis McCann. (Milwaukee Journal March 24, 1998)

    Short history of the death penalty in Wisconsin, detailing the last execution in 1851, where a man convicted of murdering his wife was hanged, but it took nearly 10 minutes for him to die.

    Botched Executions

    "Some Examples of Post-Furman Botched Executions," by Michael Radelet. (May 24, 2007)
    Short summaries of 40 Post-Furman botched executions (27 lethal injection, 9 electric chair, 2 gas chamber) by Michael L. Radelet of the University of Colorado, and updated by the Death Penalty Information Center. (06/09/2000)

    The Shocking Truth About Death in the Electric Chair.

    Thorough and well-referenced anti-chair article from Karl Keys at Capital Defenders Toolbox, detailing the gruesome psysiology of death by electrocution and the rejection of this method of execution on animals and humans by almost all states; Summaries of scores of botched electrocutions, and some history of execution methods, state by state; Detailed history of the Kentucky Electric Chair.

    "Cruel and Unusual? Prison Editors Help Pull the Plug on an Electric Chair." by Wendell Smith. (1991)

    Short article by Wendell Smith from the Columbia Journalism Review (Sept 1991), commenting upon botched Louisiana executions and the efforts of the prison magazine, The Angolite, causing a change to lethal injection as the approved method of execution.

    Botched Execution Prompts Electric Chair Scrutiny in Florida. (CNN 1997)

    CNN Miami news article by Correspondent Susan Candiotti following the fiery execution of Pedro Medina on March 25, 1997 in Florida's electric chair, with some interesting quotes from the victim's family.

    "Execution by Lethal Injection – A Quarter Century of State Poisoning." (October 2007)

    Amnesty International Report Report which includes section on botched lethal injection executions. (Page 6-10)

    Botched Lethal Injections (Capital Punishment U.K.)

    List and short summary of botched lethal injections in the United States from 1983-1995, from Capital Punishment - U.K.

    "Gruesome Execution in 1851 Helped End Death Penalty," by Dennis McCann. (Milwaukee Journal March 24, 1998)

    Short history of the death penalty in Wisconsin, detailing the last execution in 1851, where a man convicted of murdering his wife was hanged, but it took nearly 10 minutes for him to die.

    What if a Stay of Execution is Received After Commencement of the Lethal Injection? (1998)

    Oregon Attorney General Opinion on the effect of a stay of execution received by the warden after the process of lethal injection has started. (November 6, 1998)

    Medical Issues

    American Medical Association Code of Ethics E-2.06 Capital Punishment
    AMA Ethics Code proscribing medical participation in execution: "An individual's opinion on capital punishment is the personal moral decision of the individual. A physician, as a member of a profession dedicated to preserving life when there is hope of doing so, should not be a participant in a legally authorized execution."

    World Medical Association Resolution Against Physician Participation in Capital Punishment. (1981)

    Resolution adopted by the 34th World Medical Assembly, Lisbon, Portugal, September 28 - October 2, 1981, and amended by the 52nd WMA General Assembly in Edinburgh, Scotland during October 2000.

    Execution by Lethal Injection: Medicine at the Service of State Ordered Killing.

    January 1998 article from Amnesty International with an abundance of propaganda and rhetoric.

    "Lethal Injection: A Stain on the Face of Medicine," by Jonathan Groner. (July 2002)

    "Even without doctors' participation, lethal injectionwith its intravenous lines, electrocardiograph monitors, and anaesthetic drugs has a deeply corrupting influence on medicine as a whole. The Nazis used the imagery of medicine to justify killing, and they corrupted doctors and, ultimately, an entire nation. Capital punishment in the United States now depends solely on the same medical charade. Without the respectability that lethal injection provides, capital punishment in the United States would probably cease."

    "Breach of Trust: Physician Participation in Executions in the United States." (March 1994)

    Report sponsored by the American College of Physicians, Human Rights Watch, The National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty and the Physicians for Human Rights.

    Doctors, The Death Penalty, and Lethal Injection.

    A bibliography of medical journal and review articles against physicians role in lethal injection executions from the University of Dundee, Scotland.

    "Execution by Lethal Injection – A Quarter Century of State Poisoning." (Amnesty International October 2007)

    Amnesty International Report Report which includes section on the medical ethics of lethal injection executions. (Page 25-32)

    "Doctors and Executions: A Complex Dilemma of Medicine, Ethics and Law," by Nathan Crabbe. (LethalInjection Blog January 28, 2007)

    "The hood is off doctors involved in Florida executions, creating a conflict for a state trying to ensure that lethal injection is medically sound. While states are working to ensure the lethal injection procedure is medically sound — a statewide commission begins its work Monday in Tampa, examining problems with Florida's execution process — the American Medical Association and other medical groups are telling doctors to shun involvement in executions."

    "Breach of Trust: Physician Participation in Executions." (Human Rights Watch March 1994)

    The ongoing controversy prompted a number of organizations to join together to examine the extent of physician involvement in executions and to provide policy recommendations to medical organizations, state governments and departments of corrections. Four organizations participated in this project: the American College of Physicians (ACP), Physicians for Human Rights (PHR), Human Rights Watch (HRW) and the National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty (NCADP). The conclusions and recommendations were inevitable.

    "Death penalty poses ethics quandary for doctors." (American Medical Network)

    Short news article on the recent targeting by death penalty abolitionists in the United States of the doctors who help with lethal injections at executions, and the complex ethical questions in the fields of law and medicine.

    "Doctors And Executions: A Complex Question Of Medicine, Ethics and Law," by Glen Arnold. (June 29, 2004)

    Short commentary on the relatively new debate of the role of doctors in executions. And, much like the issue of the death penalty itself, the legal and ethical questions surrounding the role of doctors in executions are complex and difficult to answer, from Suite101.com.

    "Medical Groups Seek End to Death Penalty for Minors," by Tanya Albert. (August 23, 2004)

    Their legal brief is one of dozens filed by groups worldwide that call for a U.S. ban on this punishment. "The U.S. Supreme Court is considering the legality of sentencing children younger than 18 to death, and the American Medical Association, American Psychiatric Assn. and other medical societies are asking justices to put an end to the practice." (American Medical News)

    "Doctor's Oath Kills Death Penalty in North Carolina," by Max O' Well. (Raleigh News & Observer February 08, 2007)

    North Carolina Governor Easley and the Council of State place death penalty on indefinite leave after the North Carolina Medical Board ruled that it doctors cannot participate in executions.

    North Carolina Department of Correction v. North Carolina Medical Board: Injunction Granted. (September 21, 2007)

    Copy of Wake County Superior Court Order granting permanent injunction prohibiting Medical Board from disciplining doctors who participate in executions.

    "Doctors Debate Judge's Stance," by Titan Barksdale. (Charlotte News and Observer October 18, 2007)

    Court ruling that medical board overstepped its authority on executions stirs an exchange in the medical community

    "Death Penalty Information USA: Barred Doctor Helps in Executions," by Henry Weinstein. (LA Times November 16, 2007)

    Amnesty International Blog Report. "Doctor who was barred from taking part in executions in Missouri because of concerns his dyslexia would interfere with his ability to administer lethal injections is helping the federal government carry out death sentences in Indiana, according to court documents."

    "Wal-Mart And the Death Penalty," by Dahlia Lithwick. (Washington Post February 26, 2006)

    The parallels between California physicians who refused last week to participate in the execution of a convicted killer and the growing numbers of pharmacists around the country who refuse to dispense morning-after pills.

    "Doctors See Way to Cut Suffering in Executions ," by Denise Grady. (New York Times June 23, 2006)

    "But medical experts say the current method of lethal injection could easily be changed to make suffering less likely. Even the doctor who devised the technique 30 years ago says that if he had it to do over again, he would recommend a different method. Switching to an injection method with less potential to cause pain could undercut many of the lawsuits."

    "Doctor's Stand Renews Death Penalty Debate," by Deborah Denno. (Chicago Tribune February 23, 2006)

    "The refusal of medical professionals to take part in the scheduled execution of a convicted killer in California this week has reopened the debate over whether lethal injection is a constitutional means of capital punishment--and, inevitably, over capital punishment itself."

    "The Lethal Injection Quandary: How Medicine has Dismantled the Death Penalty," by Deborah W. Denno. (2007)

    "This Article examines how states ended up with such constitutionally vulnerable lethal injection procedures, suggesting that physician participation in executions, though looked upon with disdain, is more prevalent—and perhaps more necessary—than many would like to believe."

    "Participation in Death Penalty: Where Should Line Be Drawn?" (Psychiatric News May 5, 2006)

    "After California physicians balk at participating in the death penalty, physicians opposed to such participation urge state medical associations to follow AMA guidelines and bar physicians from any involvement in executions."

    "Death Penalty, Medical Ethics Collide in Kentucky," by Brett Barrouquere. (Associated Press November 19, 2004)

    "When Governor Ernie Fletcher signed a death warrant for a convicted killer this month, he may have done more than start the clock ticking on an execution. Some say Fletcher, a doctor, may have put his medical license at risk."

    "Should The State Pay For Organ Transplants For Death-Row Prisoners?" from Physicians Weekly. (June 1996)

    Is it Ethical to Deny Life-Support Treatments to Death Row Inmates? (Bioethics Discussion Pages 1996)
    "Death Row Privilege, In Need of a New Kidney," by Bryan Robinson. (Liberty Page May 28, 2002)
    Physicians for Human Rights.

    Jury Issues

    "Bias in a Death-Qualified Panel: A Look at Troubling Statistics," by Jan Mills Spaeth. (July 1995)
    Arizona Jury Research article originally published in The Writ, the official publication of the Pima County Bar Association, in July, 1995. "Based on these findings, the courts may want to reconsider their practices on death-qualifying jurors. If sentencing is not an issue in voir dire, and jurors are not queried on their death-penalty attitudes, those opposing the death penalty would not be eliminated, in mass, from the panel. In the opinion of researchers, this would lead to a more balanced, unbiased panel."

    Death Qualification, from Capital Punishment in Context.

    Short summary of death qualified juries, with a short explanation of the jury selection process capital cases and its affect on verdicts. Brief outline of U.S. Supreme Court cases, including Witherspoon v. Illinois (1968), Wainwright v. Witt (1985), Lockhart v. McCree (1986), Uttecht v. Brown (2007).

    "Are You Death Qualified?" by Steve Bergstein. (June 5, 2007)

    Short opinion article on the bias of death qualified juries in capital cases. "But a hidden argument against the death penalty is that the process systematically excludes any potential jurors who see the world in shades of gray and who will not reach for the gun at the first sign of trouble."

    Death Qualified Juries (National Science Foundation)

    "Capital Punishment Decisions Hinge on Jurors Who May Not Understand Their Task" from the National Science Foundation News (January 14, 1997).

    "Are You Death Qualified?" by Clay S. Conrad. (Cato Institute August 10, 2000.

    "Only those who support capital punishment are permitted to serve. You have doubts that the death penalty is just? You think the death penalty may be over-used? The states do not want your opinion to be heard in the jury room."

    "The Principled Executioner: Capital Juries' Bias and the Benefits of True Bifurcation," by Susan Rozelle. (Arizona State Law Journal 2006)

    (Abstract only) "Capital jurors are “death-qualified,” or asked to verify at voir dire that their views on the death penalty would not prevent them from serving impartially. Ironically, death qualification itself creates juries unfairly biased toward guilt and death."

    Capital Juries, a Bibliography. (American Judicature Society 2007)

    A Bibliography of Jury-Related Information, Legal Periodical Articles, since 2000, Indexed by Topic. (December 30, 2007)

    "Juries and the Death Penalty: Readdressing the Witherspoon Question," by Craig Haney. (Crime and Delinquency 1980)

    Short article adressing the bias of death qualified juries from Craig Haney, Department of Psychology, University of California, Santa Cruz. "The exclusion of characteristics or attitudes linked with opposi tion to the death penalty has meant that capital juries are unrepresentative of the community at large, predisposed to support the prosecution, and predisposed to convict persons brought before the court."

    "Arguments for Life and Death," by Jennifer C. Honeyman & James R.P. Ogloff. (Canadian Journal January 1996)

    1996 study from the Psychology Department at Simon Fraser University, investigating the effectiveness of arguments in persuading a jury to recommend a death sentence or life imprisonment. (Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, January 1996)

    "In Jury Rooms, Form of Civil Protest Grows," by Joan Biskupic. (Washington Post February 8, 1999)

    Article discussing the growing protests by jurors, particularly minority jurors, when not guilty verdicts are returned in spite of the evidence showing guilt - Jury Nullification.

    "Jury Nullification." (Iowa State Bar Association)

    Iowa State Bar association position paper on the issue of jury nullification legislation. "Nullification instructions place citizens at the mercy of a small group of people who may grant or withhold justice at their whim, in complete disregard of the law."

    "Jury Nullification: The Top Secret Constitutional Right," by James Joseph Duane. (1996)

    Thorough and scholarly article discussing the right of jury nullification, originally published at 22:4 Litigation 6-60 (1996), by an associate professor at Regent Law School in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    "Nullifying the Jury: The Judicial Oligarchy Declares War on Jury Nullification," by Andrew J. Parmenter. (Washburn Law Journal May 2, 2007)

    "Its existence is denied. Its advocates are imprisoned. While the pages of history once shined on jury nullification,3 that book was long ago closed, and today, the judiciary seems poised to burn it."

    "The Right To Ignore the Law: Constitutional Entitlement Versus Judicial Interpretation," by Robert D. Rucker. (33 Val. U.L. Rev. 449 1999)

    Valparaiso University Law Review from Spring 1999, written by then Indiana Court of Appeals Judge (now Indiana Supreme Court Justice) Robert D. Rucker. "Preserving to the jury the right to determine the law in criminal cases is consistent with the historical function of an ancient institution."

    Fully Informed Jury Association Homepage.

    Articles, Essays, Links on the rights of juries and the power of jury nullification. (The O.J. Simpson Jury Questionnaires (10/94) and both Trial Transcripts; Example of Court Prepared Jury Answer Book from the Supreme Court of Virginia; Customized Jury Instructions On Line; State and Federal Jury Instructions; Jury Rules for Indiana Courts; Jury Handbooks; Grand Jury Power)

    "Nullification: The People's Veto Power." (Fully Informed Jury Association)

    Concise jury instruction on jury nullification.

    "FIJA: Monkeywrenching the Legal System," by Bob Black.

    Lengthy article from the Spunk Library, an online anarchist library and archive.

    "A History of Jury Nullification." (International Society for Individual Liberty)

    "Jury nullification of law," as it is sometimes called, is a traditional right that was rigorously defended by America's Founding Fathers. The Constitution provides five separate tribunals with veto power - representatives, senate, executive, judges - and finally juries. Each enactment of law must pass all these hurdles before it gains the authority to punish those who may choose to violate it. (International Society for Individual Liberty (ISIL) and the Fully Informed Jury Association.)

    Future Dangerousness

    "Deadly Speculation; Misleading Texas Capital Juries." (Texas Defender Service 2004)
    In depth report of the Texas Defender Service: DEADLY SPECULATION - Misleading Texas Capital Juries with False Predictions of Future Dangerousness. "We reviewed 155 cases in which prosecutors used experts to predict a defendant’s future dangerousness. These experts were wrong 95% of the time." (Texas Defender Service (TDS) is a nonprofit organization established in 1995 by experienced Texas death penalty attorneys)

    "Arguing Future Dangerousness; New Techniques for Assessing the Risk of Violence," by Trowbridge and Williams. (2000)

    "It should not escape notice that these actuarial prediction techniques are yet another example where the technology precedes its explanation. We know the VRAG works but we don’t know exactly why--not unlike aspirin (until quite recently). There is no theory that convincingly explains the causes of criminal behavior. Until we have such an explanatory theory, we should not become complaisant about the prediction of recidivism." By Brett C. Trowbridge and Charles H. Williams. Originally published in Washington Criminal Defense, February 2000, Vol 14, No. 1.

    "Texas Psychologist Speaks Out About His Testimony on Race and Crime," by Raju Chebium. (CNN June 9, 2000)

    News article on the furor created by the explanations given by clinical psychologist Walter Quijano of factors considered, including race, in testifying as to future dangerousness for the prosecution in several death penalty trials in Texas.

    "How Dangerousness is Predicted." (Court TV Crime Library)

    Three chapters from CRIMINAL MIND/CRIMINAL PROFILING: 3. How Dangerousness is Predicted; 4. Problems With Prediction; 5. Predicting Accuracy.

    "A Dangerous Preoccupation with Future Danger: Why Expert Predictions are Unconstitutional," by Eugenia T. La Fontaine. (Boston College Law Review 2002)

    Boston College Law Review article, Vol. 44, No. 1, pages 207-244. "The Court should follow this path toward the finding that psychiatric predictions of future dangerousness in capital cases are a violation of the Eighth Amendment because they are unreliable and inaccurate and lead to arbitrary and capricious results."

    "Genetic Predictions of Future Dangerousness: Is There a Blueprint for Violence?" by Erica Beecher-Monas and Edgar Garcia-Ril.

    Duke Law Review article, Winter/Spring 2006. "Since at least the late nineteenth century, courts and prisons have reflected attempts to discriminate between the innately criminal and those who acted merely by force of circumstance, whose crimes would not pose a future danger to society."

    "The Question of Future Dangerousness of Capital Defendants," by A.P. Merillat. (Texas Bar Journal September 2006)

    Article written by law enforcement professional who testifies as an expert in Texas Capital cases on the future dangerousness of the murderer. "The point is this: Prison inmates have abundant opportunities to commit criminal acts, including acts of violence."

    Life Without Parole

    Listing of States With/Without Life Without Parole Option in Capital Cases. (DPIC)
    "To More Inmates, Life Term Means Dying Behind Bars," by Adam Liptak. (New York Times October 2, 2005)
    "Refereeing the Death Penalty: LWOP is Not Worse than Death," by Barry Farber. (NewsMax.Com June 27, 2000)
    "Once a Murderer . . ." (ProDeathPenalty.Com 2004)
    "Life Without Parole" (ProDeathPenalty.Com 2006)
    "America's Child Killers: Life Without Hope," by Ed Pilkington. (The Guardian August 4, 2007)
    National Coalition to Ban Life Without Parole for Youth Offenders (National Center for Youth Law)
    "The Truth About Life Without Parole." (ACLU of Northern California Resouce Paper)
    Life Without Parole is Not Good Enough to Insure Public Safety. (Wesley Lowe)
    "The Rest of Their Lives: Life without Parole for Child Offenders in the United States." (Human Rights Watch)
    "Sniper Malvo Sentenced to Life without Parole." (CNN News Center May 5, 2004)
    "To More Inmates, Life Term Means Dying Behind Bars," by Adam Liptak. (New York Times Audiofile October 2, 2005)
    "Set in Steel: Prison Life Without Parole," by Maya Schenwar. (Truthout November 28, 2007)
    California Life Without Parole Act: Accountability with the Chance to Turn Around (April 2007)
    "Is Life Without Parole the Same as Death?" (Public Defender Dude Blog July 13, 2005)
    Inmate Deaths: Murder in Prison (Three Strikes Legal)
    "Death of a Mudman," by Paul Davis. (Orchard Press Mystery Magazine 2002)
    "The Death Penalty Is Showing New Life - Robert (Mudman) Simon," by David Kocieniewski. (NYTimes June 10, 2001)
    "Death Row Inmate Beats Another to Death in New Jersey Prison," by David Kocieniewski. (NYTimes September 8, 1999)
    "Guard Details Security Problems at Parchman," by Kandiss Crone. (WLBT3-TV January 29, 2007)
    "Mudman Murdered on NJ Death Row." (Times News Online 09-08-99)
    N.C. Death Row Inmate, Tommy Noell: Sentence Commuted, Paroled, and Kills Again. (WRAL, November 7, 1998) (Inactive Link)
    Texas Death Row Inmate Stabbed 54 Times. (Amarillo Globe-News, November 5, 1998)
    "Dead Run," by Joe Jackson and William E. Burke, Jr., a book on America's only mass escape from Death Row.
    "Murders That Could Have Been Averted By Capital Punishment." (The New American August 30, 1990)
    Garner v. Jones (March 28, 2000) Serving Life, Escaped, Murdered Again, Sentenced to Second Life.
    "Correctional Officer's Killer Gets Life Without Parole," by David Disheau. (Associated Press January 28, 2008)
    "Texas Death Row Escape: A Natural Response to Racism & Brutality," by Gloria Rubac. (1998)
    "Texas Death Row Escape: "Nabbed Killer Back in Texas; Death Row Inmate Extradited from Louisiana. (CNN Law Center November 8, 2005)
    "Inmate Faces Death Penalty Following Conviction for Killing Guard," by David Dishneau. (WTOP News January 18, 2008)

    DNA

    Hot Topics: DNA. (New York State Defenders)
    Scores of links to news articles, reports, and resources.

    President's DNA Initiative: Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology.

    The President's DNA Initiative provides funding, training, and assistance to ensure that forensic DNA reaches its full potential to solve crimes, protect the innocent, and identify missing persons. Online DNA training; Tools for forensic scientists; State by State forensic DNA information; State and Federal statutes and case law; Resources for legislators, Judges, lawyers, police, and lab personnel.

    "Reference Guide on DNA Evidence," by David H. Kaye and George F. Sensabaugh. (Federal Judicial Center 2000)

    The second edition of Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence (Page 485-576), distributed to all federal Judges. Thorough DNA treatise, with legal annotations and detailed scientific explanations.

    The Case for Innocence. (PBS Frontline January 11, 2000)

    Why do inmates remain in prison despite DNA evidence which exonerates them with near certainty? Documentary focusing on the DNA revolution in technology and spotlighting four cases of death row inmates: Earl Washington (Virginia), Clyde Charles (Louisiana), Roy Criner (Texas), and Roger O'Dell (Virginia), all asserting innocence. Originally aired on January 11, 2000 on PBS.

    "Post-Conviction DNA Testing: When is Justice Served?" (United States Senate June 13, 2000)

    Summary of proceedings before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee considering bills by Chairman Orin Hatch of Utah and Ranking Minority member Patrick Leahy of Vermont. Also includes full written statements of all witnesses appearing before the Committee.

    National Commission on the Future of DNA Evidence. (United States Attorney General)

    The Attorney General directed the National Institute of Justice to establish and administer a commission with the purpose of providing the Attorney General with recommendations on the use of current and future DNA methods, applications and technologies in the operation of the criminal justice system, from the crime scene to the courtroom, in order to maximize the value of forensic DNA Evidence in the criminal justice system.

    "Convicted by Juries, Exonerated by Science." (National Institute of Justice June 1996)

    Case Studies in the Use of DNA Evidence to Establish Innocence - by Edward Connors, Thomas Lundregan, Neal Miller, Tom McEwen, staff members of the Institute for Law and Justice, Alexandria, Virginia.

    "Report to the Attorney General on Delays in Forensic DNA Analysis." (National Institute of Justice March 2003)

    Case Studies in the Use of DNA Evidence to Establish Innocence - by Edward Connors, Thomas Lundregan, Neal Miller, Tom McEwen, staff members of the Institute for Law and Justice, Alexandria, Virginia.

    "For 110 Inmates Freed by DNA Tests, True Freedom Remains Elusive." (AP DPIC May 28, 2002)

    AP article on the difficulties after DNA "exoneration" and release from prison of 100 inmates, 11 of which served time on death row.

    "DNA Frees Death-Row Inmates, Brings Others to Justice," by Brian Handwerk. (ational Geograhic Channel April 8, 2005)

    "Post-conviction DNA testing on the mask the perpetrator left at the scene both exonerated Matthews and revealed the identity of the actual perpetrator," Kashickey said from New York City. The Washington, D.C.-based Death Penalty Information Center (DPIC) reports that 13 other death-row inmates have also been exonerated with the help of DNA evidence."

    The Innocence Project - Facts on Post-Conviction DNA Exonerations - Fix the System: Access to DNA Testing.

    "As of July 1, 2007, 42 states have some form of law permitting inmates access to DNA testing. The other eight states have no law granting such access. Click here to learn if your state allows access to testing."

    "Policy Position on DNA Technology and the Criminal Justice System." (National District Attorneys Association July 20, 2003)

    The National District Attorneys Association, representing America’s local district attorneys, promotes a truth-based justice system. The NDAA recognizes DNA testing as a powerful tool for determining the truth in criminal cases. This technology has emerged as the most reliable forensic technique for identifying criminals when biological evidence of the crime is available. The NDAA strongly supports DNA testing as a means of identifying and apprehending criminals and proving the guilt or innocence of suspects and defendants. The NDAA encourages public investment in this technology to ensure its full development as an instrument of justice.

    "Death Penalty Kills the Innocent." (Dangerous and Loud Blog: Getting Radical With Dana Cloud July 27, 2007)

    "The first DNA exoneration took place in 1989. Exonerations have been won in 31 states; since 2000, there have been 142 exonerations. 15 of the 205 people exonerated through DNA served time on death row." (From The Innocence Project)

    "Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology Act of 2003."

    Speech of Senator Kyl upon the introduction of the "Advancing Justice Through DNA Technology Act of 2003" in the United States Senate. (Posted by Criminal Justice Legal Foundation)

    "The Unkillable Death Penalty: DNA Tests Won't Stop Capital Punishment," by David Greenberg. (Slate.Com June 2, 2000)

    "The problem with this scenario of the collapse of capital punishment in the face of science is that it's just as easy to envision the opposite. If it ever becomes possible to decide conclusively who is innocent and who is guilty, executing the innocent will no longer be a hazard."

    Vermont Senator Patrick Leahy Statement on Post-Conviction DNA Testing. (2001)

    Statement of Vermont Senator Patrick Leahy to the Senate Judiciary Committee on Post-Conviction DNA Testing. (June 13, 2001)

    Utah Senator Orrin Hatch Statement on Post-Conviction DNA Testing. (2001)

    Statement of Utah Senator Orrin Hatch to the Senate Judiciary Committee on Post-Conviction DNA Testing. (June 13, 2001)

    DNA Testing and the Death Penalty (ACLU June 26, 2002)

    "In the U.S., as of June 2002, 108 people including 12 death row inmates, have been exonerated by use of DNA tests. The increasing use of DNA testing to help confirm the innocence or guilt in capital cases is one among many reforms that will help ensure that innocent people are not sentenced to death."

    "DNA Tests Confirm Guilt of Executed Man, Roger Coleman," by Maria Glod and Michael D. Shear. (Washington Post January 13, 2006)

    "The Roger Coleman Case: Did Virginia Execute an Innocent Man?" from InsideOut.
    "Must This Man (Roger Coleman) Die?" by Jill Smolowe. (Time May. 18, 1992)
    "Press Release on Roger Coleman from James C. McCloskey, Executive Director of Centurion Ministries. (January 13, 2006)
    "DNA testing mistakes at the Washington State Patrol Crime Labs." (Seattle Post July 22, 2004)
    "Understanding DNA Evidence: A Guide for Victim Service Providers," by Kathryn M.Turman. (Office of Victims of Crime 2001)
    "Death Penalty: DNA Tests Prove Justice Has Failed," by Alberto Cremonesi. (IPSNews September 21, 2006)
    "DNA Saves Virginia Man (Earl Washington) From Execution," Sonja Barisic. (CBSNews February 12, 2001)
    "DNA Saves Virginia Man (Earl Washington) From Execution," Sonja Barisic. (CBSNews February 12, 2001)
    "DNA Test Fails to Clear Reprieved Death Row Inmate Ricky McGinn." (CourtTV/AP July 12, 2000)
    "To Set Murder Case Right, Find Out Why it Went Wrong, by Eric Zorn." (Chicago Tribune / ABOLISH Archives June 9, 1996)
    "DNA frees Arizona inmate after time on death row," by Dennis Wagner Beth DeFalco, and Patricia Biggs. (Arizona Republic April 09, 2002)

    Wrongful Convictions - Innocence Issues

    Some Twentieth Century Erroneous Executions.
    List and summary of cases of supposed wrongful executions, from Michael L. Radelet, Hugo Adam Bedau, and Constance Putnam, "In Spite of Innocence: Erroneous Convictions in Capital Cases." Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1992, Bedau and Radelet, "Miscarriages of Justice in Potentially Capital Cases." Stanford Law Review 40 (1987):21-179. (text file)

    Justice For All: A Response to the Bedau and Radelet Study.

    Justice For All article "Death Penalty and Sentencing Information: The Risk of Executing the Innocent." A thoughtful response to the Bedau and Radelet Study.

    "The Guilty and the Innocent," by Paul G. Cassell. (Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy Spring 1999)

    An examination of alleged cases of wrongful conviction from false confessions, from Paul G. Cassell, a University of Utah law professor, emerging as one of the few spokesmen to challenge the anti-death penalty movement.

    Statement of Paul G. Cassell on Claims of Innocence in Capital Cases. (House of Representatives July 23, 1993)

    Full statement of Paul G. Cassell, Associate Law Professor at the University of Utah, given to the Committee on the Judiciary, United States House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, concerning claims of innocence in capital cases. ". . . the risk to innocent life from failing to carry out capital sentences imposed under contemporary safeguards far outweighs the speculative and remote risk that an execution might be in error.

    The Innocence Project.

    The Innocence Project at the Benjamin N. Cardozo School of Law at Yeshiva University, founded by Barry C. Scheck and Peter J. Neufeld in 1992, is a non-profit legal clinic and criminal justice resource center. We work to exonerate the wrongfully convicted through postconviction DNA testing; and develop and implement reforms to prevent wrongful convictions.

    Illinois Governor's Commission on Capital Punishment: Report to Governor Ryan. (April 12, 2002)

    Long-awaited report from the Illinois Commission on Capital Punishment, established by Governor George Ryan shortly after he instituted a moratorium on executions in the state of Illinois in 2000, following the highly publicized "exonerations" of 13 death row inmates since 1976. The report concludes with several controversial recommendations, all restricting the ability of prosecutors to seek a death sentence and the judge and jury's power to deliver one.

    Witness to Innocence: From Death Row to Freedom.

    "Witness to Innocence is spearheaded by former death row prisoners who have been exonerated and released from death rows across the United States and who are now actively engaged in the struggle to end the death penalty. These courageous witnesses bring a human face to the death penalty." Witness to Innocence is a project of The Moratorium Campaign and a part of the Death Penalty Discourse Network.

    "Talking Points on the 100th Innocent Released," from Moratorium Now! (2002)

    Media talking points and sample letters to the editor following the release of Ray Krone from Arizona Death Row in 2002.

    "The Execution of the Innocent," by Michael L. Radelet and Hugo Adam Bedau. (61 Law & Contemporary Problems 105 Autumn 1998)

    "First, we explore the conceptualization of the term "innocence. Second, we review the kinds of evidence we have relied on previously to support our conclusion that some defendants sentenced to death and executed were actually innocent. Finally, we consider how government officials and the general public are currently reacting to the issue of possible executions of the innocent and what role this issue plays in contemporary death penalty debates."

    The Risk of Wrongful Execution of the Innocent. (Wesley Lowe)

    Excerpt from Pro-Death Penalty article, addressing the risk of executing the innocent.

    "Southern Newspaper Coverage of Exonerations from Death Row," by David Niven. (Journal of Criminal Justice 2004)

    "Exonerated inmates receive less coverage than those who are executed, and coverage is apt to portray the exoneration as the result of an isolated mistake and not indicative of systematic failure, and (c) coverage emphasizes the experiences of former inmates after being released, not during their incarceration. Cumulatively, this pattern serves to minimize the seriousness."

    North Carolina Actual Innocence Commission: Recommendations for Eyewitness Identification.

    Report of a working study commission of the North Carolina Supreme Court, whose primary objective is "to make recommendations which reduce or eliminate the possibility of the wrongful conviction of an innocent person." (February 2003)

    The Case for Innocence. (PBS Frontline January 11, 2000)

    Why do inmates remain in prison despite DNA evidence which exonerates them with near certainty? Documentary focusing on the DNA revolution in technology and spotlighting four cases of death row inmates: Earl Washington (Virginia), Clyde Charles (Louisiana), Roy Criner (Texas), and Roger O'Dell (Virginia), all asserting innocence. Originally aired on January 11, 2000 on PBS.

    "Can You Build a Foolproof Death Penalty?" by Seth Stern. (Christian Science Monitor November 5, 2003)

    While other states rethink capital punishment, Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney asks panel to explore its reinstatement.

    "Massachusetts Governor Romney Takes Scientific Approach to Death Penalty." (Press Release September 23, 2003)

    Press Release from the office of Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney: "Relying on the tremendous advances in the area of forensic science, the Governor today announced a panel of scientific and legal experts to craft a proposal to reinstate capital punishment in Massachusetts for a narrow set of crimes."

    "Exonerations in the United States, 1989-2004." (University of Michigan April 19, 2004)

    The report focuses on 328 cases—all almost exclusively murder and rape crimes—since 1989, the year of the first DNA exoneration. But the count is conservative, the report stresses. (Funded by U.S. Justice Fund, Soros Foundations, Open Society Institute.)

    The Life After Exoneration Program!

    The Life After Exoneration Program's mission is to address the injustice of wrongful conviction and incarceration by assisting exonerees and their family members in re-building their lives on the outside, by working to secure their physical, spiritual, psychological, social and economic well being.

    "The Causes of Wrongful Conviction," by Paul Craig Roberts. (The Independent Review, Spring 2003)

    "The execution of an innocent person cannot be remedied. This fact, together with mounting evidence of innocents on death row, has strengthened opposition to the death penalty. Nevertheless, the death penalty has proved to be a divisive issue. The divide between liberals and conservatives on the death penalty could be bridged by changing the emphasis in the issue to wrongful conviction."

    "Florida Commission on Capital Cases: Case Histories, a Review of 24 Individuals Released from Death Row." (September 10, 2002)

    "In response to the increased scrutiny of Florida’s capital cases; specifically, a recent study claiming that Florida has the highest rate of death row releases, the commission has researched in-depth the 24 cited cases where individuals have been released from death row. Of these 24 inmates, none were found “innocent,” even when acquitted, because no such verdict exists. A defendant is found guilty or not guilty, never innocent. The guilt of only four defendants, however, was subsequently doubted by the prosecuting office or the Governor and Cabinet."

    "The Death Penalty Debate in Illinois," by John J. Kinsella. (DuPage County Bar Association Brief June 2000)

    Thorough description of the recent Death Penalty Debate in Illinois, with a pro-death penalty slant, including a discussion of the Chicago Tribune, the so-called 13 "exonerations," Rolando Cruz and the prosecution of the prosecutors, from John J. Kinsella, First Assistant State’s Attorney for DuPage County.

    "Illinois Prosecutors and Police Acquitted Despite Evidence They Framed Defendant," by Alden Long. (16 June 1999)

    "A DuPage County, Illinois prosecutor and four sheriff's officers were acquitted by a county judge and jury June 4 of charges that they conspired to frame up and convict Rolando Cruz for murder, rape and kidnapping."

    "The Death Penalty's Cloudy Future," by Andrew Cohen. (CBSNews.Com April 26, 2002)

    On the eve of a major U.S. Supreme Court decision in Ring, just one week after a landmark commission in Illinois released its ominous findings on how the penalty is meted out, a federal judge in New York threatened to declare the federal death penalty unconstitutional in general. There is no getting around the fact that skepticism about the accuracy of death verdicts is growing within the law. "I don't know whether or to what extent the death penalty in America is in trouble, but I know that this is how constitutional change occurs in this country. The facts push the law."

    "Executing the Innocent," by Elizabeth A. Linehan, St. Joseph's University (1998).

    Address to the 20th World Congress of Philosophy in Boston, August 1998. Any criminal justice system carries the risk of punishing innocent persons, but the punishment of death is unique and requires greater precautions. The risk of executing innocent persons is a decisive objection to the institution of capital punishment in the United States. Consequentialist arguments for the death penalty are inconclusive at best; the strongest justification is a retributive one. However, this argument is seriously undercut if a significant risk of executing the innocent exists.

    Death Penalty Information Center: Innocence and the Death Penalty.

    Two lengthy reports which include short summaries of cases: "Innocence and the Death Penalty: The Increasing Danger of Executing the Innocent" (1997), and "Innocence and the Death Penalty: Assessing the Danger of Mistaken Executions" (1993); List of 127 defendants exonerees released from death row in the opinion of DPIC; List of eight executed despite doubts about guilt.

    A Critique of the Death Penalty Information Center "Innocence List." (ProDeathPenalty.Com 2000)

    The Death Penalty Information Center (DPIC) Innocence List (“Innocence: Freed from Death Row”) is frequently cited as support for the claim that 102 innocent prisoners have been released from Death Rows across the nation. This list is uncritically accepted as definitive. However, an examination of the premises and sources of the List raises serious questions about whether many of the allegedly innocent prisoners named on the List are actually innocent at all. By Ward A. Campbell. Supervising Deputy Attorney General, State of California.

    "The Death Penalty - Innocence Issues," by Dudley Sharp. (July 2002)

    Thorough article addressing the concerns of wrongful convictions and execution of the innocent: I. Innocents Released from Death Row: A Critical Review of the Claims; What is the real number?; II. The Risk to Innocents if We Don't Execute; III. Due Process and The Risk to Innocents (Protecting innocent defendants / inmates sacrificing the innocent); IV. OK to Execute the Innocent?; V. Future innocence considerations; VI. The Innocent Executed; VII. Conclusion. From Dudley Sharp, Justice For All, Director of Death Penalty Resources.

    "Innocence and the Death Penalty." by Dudley Sharp. (ProDeathPenalty.Com April 16, 2000)

    Short article distinguishing between the factually innocent and the legally innocent, from Dudley Sharp, Justice For All, Director of Death Penalty Resources.

    "Researchers Challenge List Of Death Penalty Innocents," by Jeff Johnson. (CNSNews.com January 08, 2003)

    Short article discussing congressional testimony from California Supervising Deputy Attorney General Ward Campbell, and Dudley Sharp, Justice For All, Director of Death Penalty Resources, giving their opinion of the so-called "innocent list" of DPIC.

    "The Last Guys Proved Innocent," by Ann Coulter. (Jewish World Review June 27, 2000)

    Short commentary on the 1980's fraud perpetrated by the anti-death penalty forces through the Bedau and Radelet study of innocents executed, with the willing assistance of the media, and the response by Markman and Cassell.

    "Wrongful Conviction and Innocence Resources on the Internet," by Ken Strutin. (June 10, 2006)

    Scores of links on Current Awareness; Case Profiles; Conferences and Trainers; Innocence Projects; Commission Reports; Organizations; Innocence Project Resources; Legislation; Bibliographies, from Ken Strutin (JD, MLS), an experienced law librarian, criminal defense attorney, and well-known writer and speaker.

    Northwestern University School of Law Center on Wrongful Convictions.

    "The Center’s mission is to identify and rectify wrongful convictions and other serious miscarriages of justice, a mission that has three components: representation, research, and public education. Center faculty, staff, cooperating outside attorneys, and law students investigate possible wrongful convictions and represent imprisoned clients with claims of actual innocence."

    The Faces of Wrongful Conviction Project .

    "More than 200 men and women have been wrongfully convicted in California since 1990. Some of these men and women were sentenced to death; all lost years of their lives, imprisoned for crimes they did not commit. The aim of this project is to bring you their stories and to advocate for reforms that will eliminate wrongful convictions."

    "Are Innocent People Being Executed In The U.S.?" (National Center for Policy Analysis)

    Abstract of article by Eugene H. Methvin, "Death Penalty Is Fairer Than Ever," Wall Street Journal, May 10, 2000.

    Highlights of The National Conference on Wrongful Convictions. (Northwestern University November 13 - 15, 1998)

    Highlights of a Conference held at the Northwestern University Law Center in Chicago, including assembling 30 innocent death row survivors, and media accounts of the Conference; Tips for the wrongly convicted; A portrait of the survivors; Signs of innocence.

    "From Blackstone to Bentham: Why Wrongful Conviction Is On The Rise," by Paul Craig Roberts. (LewRockwell.Com 2001)

    "Conservatives need to understand that the problem of corrupt justice goes deeper than law enforcement personnel and cannot be corrected by cleaning out the Clinton DOJ. The very concept of law that protects us from tyranny has been lost. No longer the people's shield, law has become a weapon in the hands of government. Justice is no longer a concern of the justice system."

    "Wrongful Conviction: 50% of Mistaken Eyewitnesses Certain After Positive Feedback." (PsyBlog 1999)

    "Faulty eyewitness testimony is one of the leading causes of wrongful convictions in the US. On the basis of mounting evidence, psychologists have argued that a major contributing factor to these wrongful convictions is one of the seven sins of memory: suggestibility (Schacter, 1999). Dramatic evidence for how easily eyewitnesses are swayed comes from a study carried out by Gary Wells and Amy Bradfield at Iowa State University

    "Life After Death Row," by Sara Rimer. (NYTimes Magazine December 10, 2000)

    Summaries of the cases and life after exoneration of Rolando Cruz (Illinois), Kirk Bloodsworth (Maryland), Earl Washington (Virginia), James Richardson (Florida), Ronald Williamson (Oklahoma), and Walter McMillian (Alabama).

    Mandatory Justice: Eighteen Reforms to the Death Penalty. (The Constitution Project June 27, 2001)
    Mandatory Justice: The Death Penalty Revisited. (The Constitution Project February 2006)

    A distinguished panel, but with a clear anti-death penalty slant, make up The Constitution Project, Death Penalty Initiative. (Includes well-known anti-death penalty activists former New York Governor Mario Cuomo, former Florida Chief Justice Gerald Kogan, and former Baltimore Mayor Kurt Schmoke. Their report was presented to the United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary on June 27, 2001 at hearings on "Protecting the Innocent: Ensuring Competent Counsel in Death Penalty Cases." Their recommendations include: adequate compensation, standards and training for defense counsel; the removal of certain classes of defendants and homicides from death penalty eligibility; greater flexibility for introducing evidence that casts doubt on a conviction or sentence; gathering of data on the role of race in capital punishment and involvement of all races in the decision-making process; elimination of a judge's ability to impose a death sentence despite a jury recommendation for life imprisonment; and requiring prosecutors to open their files to the defense in death penalty cases.

    "The Quality of Justice in Capital Cases: Illinois as a Case Study," by Leigh B. Bienen.

    (61 Law & Contemp. Probs. 193 Autumn 1998) Thoroughly referenced law review article, though highly moralistic, highlighting the problems in the Illinois Capital Punishment system, zeroing in on corrupt Judges and Prosecutors, and wrongful convictions.

    "More Innocents Die When We Don't Have Capital Punishment," by Dennis Prager. (Townhall.Com June 17, 2003)

    Opinion column from talk show host Dennis Prager: "A couple of weeks ago, three New Hampshire prisoners, one a convicted murderer, escaped from prison. What if the murderer had murdered again? On whose hands would the victim's blood have been?"

    "We're Not Executing the Innocent," by Paul G. Cassell. (Wall Street Journal, June 16, 2000 Editorial)

    Wall Street Journal Editorial from University of Utah law professor Paul G. Cassell: "The Bureau of Justice Statistics has found that of 52,000 inmates serving time for homicide, more than 800 had previously been convicted of murder. That sounds like a system collapsing under the weight of its own mistakes -- and innocent people dying as a result."

    The Innocence Network: Brief Bank.

    PDF files of amicus briefs either filed by the Innocence Network, or by individual Network project members. Issues include: Access to Post-Conviction DNA Testing, New Evidence of Innocence, Actual Innocence, Electronic Recording of Custodial Interrogations, Eyewitness Identification, Ineffective Assistance of Counsel, Unreliable Forensic Science, Police and Prosecutorial Misconduct. "The Innocence Network is an affiliation of organizations dedicated to providing pro bono legal and investigative services to individuals seeking to prove innocence of crimes for which they have been convicted."

    "The Ordeal of Larry Hicks: How an Innocent Man was Almost Executed," by Niles Stanton.

    The story of Larry Hicks, sentenced to Indiana death row in September 1978, and days away from execution in 1979. Written by Niles Stanton, the attorney who successfully got Hicks' death sentence vacated, and represented him during a retrial of the murder charges in November 1980, which resulted in an acquittal.

    "The Cantu Case: Death and Doubt - Did Texas execute an innocent man?" by Lise Olsen. (Houston Chronicle July 24, 2006)

    Texas executed its fifth teenage offender at 22 minutes after midnight on Aug. 24, 1993, after his last request for bubble gum had been refused and his final claim of innocence had been forever silenced. Did Texas execute an innocent man? - Eyewitness says he felt influenced by police to ID the teen as as the killer; Wounded officer key to sentence - Attempts to discredit star witness failed at trial; Vow of silence blamed for ultimate penalty - Executed man's co-defendant says years of guilty have led him to try to clear his friend's name; Brother speaks up - Man says if he'd been asked to testify, he might have saved Cantu. Audio - Officer's telephone calls, Taped conversations between a homicide investigator and two officials in the Bexar County DA's office about the Cantu investigation; Documents - David Garza affidavit — David Garza, the convicted accomplice to the robbery-murder that led to Ruben Cantu’s execution in 1993, now claims Cantu wasn't there the night of the crime. Read his 2005 sworn statement. (PDF)

    "Not So Innocent - The Death Penalty: An Argument Continued," by Ramesh Ponnuru. (National Review October 1, 2002)

    "Besides, there is a more important reason to reject the over-100 claim: It's not true. DPIC counts people as "innocent" when they were released from death row for reasons wholly unrelated to any belief that they did not commit the crime charged."

    "Did This Man Die For . . ," by Steve Mills and Maurice Possley. (Chicago Tribune June 2006)

    The Chicago Tribune, trying desperately for years to come up with an executed prisoner who was innocent, tries Carol DeLuna, executed in Texas in 1989. "Carlos DeLuna went to Texas Death Row proclaiming his innocence. Another bragged he was the real killer. In 1989, Texas may have executed an innocent man."

    Wrongfully Convicted: Learning From the Mistakes that Send Innocent People to Prison. (Dr. Higgins 2003)

    Website of Psychiatrist Edmund S. Higgins. Database of 360 wrongful convictions (death penalty and others) with short case summaries.

    "Illinois Wrongful Capital Murder Convictions - 13 Case Profiles," from Critical Criminology.

    Capital Punishment: Interview with Randall Dale Adams, aired on WETS-FM with Host Hugh LaFollette. (Audio 29:00)
    Louisiana: Resurrection After Exoneration.
    "Anatomy of a Miscarriage of Justice: The Wrongful Conviction of Peter J. Rose," by Susan Rutberg. (2006)
    "Forensic Science, Wrongful Convictions, and American Prosecutor Discretion," by Dennis J. Stevens. (Howard Journal 2008)
    "Executing the Innocent," by Elizabeth A. Linehan, St. Joseph's University. (The Paideia Project Online December 9, 1998)
    "Does Wrongful Conviction Lower Deterrence?" by Henrik Lando. (American Law & Economics Association 2005)
    The North Carolina Center on Actual Innocence.
    Vermont Senator Patrick Leahy Press Release on the Innocence Protection Act of 2001.
    Innocence Protection Act of 2001: Minority Report of Judiciary Committee. (CJLF)
    "After Falsely Serving 19 years in Texas, Danny Brown is Home," by Dale Emch. (The Blade April 10, 2001)
    "Some Death Row Inmates Exonerated." (Christian Party Associated Press)
    Illinois' 13 Exonerated Death Row Prisoners Since 1977. (Chicago Tribune)
    93 Wrongful Convictions in Illinois With Case Summaries. (Center for Wrongful Convictions)
    Wrongful Murder Convictions - Illinois & U.S. (Critical Criminology)
    "Death Penalty Dilemma: Executing the Innocent?" by Charles Bierbauer. (CNN.Com February 24, 2000)
    Probably Innocent, Almost Executed by Stuart Taylor. (Legal Times 01-01-96)
    Justice Denied: The Magazine for the Wrongly Convicted.
    "The Death Penalty: Wrongful Convictions," by Lester S. Garrett (Liberty Magazine March 1996)
    Fatal Flaws: Innocence and the Death Penalty. (Amnesty International, 1998)
    "The Case Against the Death Penalty: The Inevitability of Error," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (July 1992)
    "Win at All Costs: Government Misconduct in the Name of Expedient Justice" (1998 Pittsburgh Post)
    "Killing Justice: Government Misconduct and the Death Penalty," by Michael Kroll. (DPIC, 1994)
    "Prosecutors Are Master Framers," by Hans Sherrer. (Justice Denied, the Magazine for the Wrongly Convicted)
    "Prosecute the Prosecutors Who Wrongly Convicted," by Robert Pauley. (St. Petersburg Times September 6, 1999)
    Truth in Justice: Working to Free the Wholly Innocent of Crimes They Did Not Commit.
    "The Wrong Man: A True Story of Innocence on Death Row," by Michael Mello. (Book Review)
    Florida: Retiring Justice has "Grave Doubts" On Guilt of Some Executed (Dec 25, 1998 AP)
    "USA: No Getting Away From It - The Risk of Lethal Error in Death Penalty Cases." (Amnesty International November 1998)
    Death Penalty Legal Representation Project for the Innocent.
    "The Wrong Man," by Alan Berlow. (The Atlantic Monthly, November 1999)
    "Innocence Found on Death Row," by Christopher Smart. (Salt Lake Weekly Wire, August 4, 1997)
    "What Jennifer Saw: Examining Eyewitness Error." (PBS Frontline 1998)
    "The Errors that Make Wrongful Convictions Frighteningly Common," by Jayne Keedle. (The Hartford Advocate, October 22, 1998)
    "When the State Makes a Mistake and the Penalty is Death, No Way to Make Amends." by Jayne Keedle. (The Hartford Advocate, December 3, 1998)
    "Rubin "Hurricane" Carter, The Other Side of the Story," by Cal Deal.
    "Carrying Justice: Overturning Wrongful Convictions Left to Students," by David Moberg. (Salon.Com March 1, 2000)
    "A Conservative Case Against Capital Punishment," by Carl M. Cannon. (National Review June 19, 2000)
    "Innocent on Death Row," by George Will. (Washington Post April 6, 2000)
    "Penalty Box: George Will Gets Capital Punishment Wrong," by Ramesh Ponnuru. (National Review November 6, 2003)
    "George Will and Capital Punishment," by Dennis Prager. (Townhall.Com November 4, 2003)
    "100th Death Row Inmate Exonerated; DNA Exonerates Arizona Prisoner Ray Krone." (ABC News April 9, 2002)
    "In Spite of Innocence: The Ordeal of 400 Americans Wrongly Convicted of Crimes Punishable by Death," by Radelet, Bedau and Putnam. (1992)
    "Putting a Price on a Wrongful Conviction," by Fernanda and Janet Roberts. (December 2, 2007)
    "Wrongful Conviction Awards Grow; Justice Department Slow in Filing Appeal," by Shelley Murphy. (Boston Globe February 8, 2008)
    Wrongful Convictions - Law 635S - Winter 2004 Course Page - University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law.

    False Confessions

    "Understand the Causes: False Confessions." (The Innocence Project)
    "In more than 25% of DNA exoneration cases, innocent defendants made incriminating statements, delivered outright confessions or pled guilty." Link to: Fix the System: False Confessions & Mandatory Recording of Interrogations.

    "The Guilty and the Innocent: An Examination of Alleged Cases of Wrongful Conviction from False Confessions " by Paul G. Cassell.

    An examination of alleged cases of wrongful conviction from false confessions, from Paul G. Cassell, a University of Utah law professor, emerging as one of the few spokesmen to challenge the anti-death penalty movement. (Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy Spring 1999)

    "The Psychology of False Confessions," by Richard P. Conti. (The Journal of Credibility Assessment and Witness Psychology 1999)

    "Obtaining a confession is one of the most important aims of police interrogation, and it is estimated that more than 80% of solved criminal cases are solved by a confession. However, a significant number of confessions that result in wrongful convictions are obtained through coercive questioning. This paper examines false confessions and discusses the psychological and social factors that influence innocent suspects to give self-incriminating false statements during police interrogation." (Boise State University)

    "The False Confession: Why an Innocent Person Will Confess Guilt," by Alexandra Perina. (Psychology Today Magazine, Mar/Apr 2003)

    "A review of one decade's worth of murder cases in a single Illinois county found 247 instances in which the defendants' self-incriminating statements were thrown out by the court or found by a jury to be insufficiently convincing for conviction. "

    "False Confessions by Adults." (Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance

    Overview, Lab Experiment, Suspects Who are Developmentally Handicapped, Pioneering Studies by Gisli Gudjonsson, Some Examples of Apparently False Confessions, Some Books on False Confessions, References.

    The Truth About False Confessions Blog.

    "False confessions are a terrible tragedy that is largely preventable. This blog has three specific goals for combating the tragedy: to educate the public and policymakers and deepen understanding of all aspects of the problem; to promote specific reforms; and to assist attorneys with clients who may have confessed falsely."

    "Criminal Law Resources: False Confessions," by Ken Strutin. (November 24, 2007)

    Scores of links on Current Awareness; False Confession Research; Recording Custodial Interrogations; Resources; PowerPoint Presentations; Bibliographies, from Ken Strutin (JD, MLS), an experienced law librarian, criminal defense attorney, and well-known writer and speaker.

    "Report and Recommendations Regarding False Confessions," (California Commission on the Fair Administration of Justice. (July 25, 2006)

    "This Report will address the extraction of false confessions during police questioning of suspects. False confessions were identified as the second most frequent cause of wrongful convictions in a national study previously reviewed by this Commission."

    "Admissibility of False-Confession Testimony: Know Thy Standard," by Peter Quintieri and Kenneth J. Weiss. (2005)

    "Depending on jurisdiction, the admissibility of expert testimony on whether a confession was knowing, intelligent, and voluntary is subject to a legal threshold such as the Frye or Daubert standard. The authors review a 2002 New Jersey Superior Court ruling that illustrates the forces that shape the admissibility of confessions." (Journal of Americn Academy of Psychiatric Law 33:535–8, 2005)

    "The Consequences of False Confessions: Deprivations of Liberty and Miscarriages of Justice in the Age of Psychological Interrogation," by Richard A. Leo and Richard J. Ofshe. (Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Winter 1998)

    "This article explores whether contemporary American psychological interrogation practices continue to induce false confessions like the third degree methods that preceded them. This article also analyzes how likely police-induced false confessions are to lead to the wrongful arrest, prosecution, conviction, and incarceration of the innocent."

    "Evolutionary Psychology and False Confession," by Jesse M. Bering and Todd K. Shackelford. (American Psychologist Dec 2005)

    "We argue that false confessions are the result of specific social dynamic events that trigger evolved heuristics of information management that were designed to maximize our ancestors' genetic replicative success," from Jesse M. Bering, University of Arkansas, and Todd K. Shackelford, Florida Atlantic University. (Page 1037)

    “I’d Know a False Confession if I Saw One," by Saul M. Kassin,Christian A. Meissner, and Rebecca J. Norwick. (April 2005)

    "College students and police investigators watched or listened to 10 prison inmates confessing to crimes. Half the confessions were true accounts; half were false-concocted for the study. Consistent with much recent research, students were generally more accurate than police, and accuracy rates were higher among those presented with audio-taped than videotaped confessions." From “I’d Know a False Confession if I Saw One: A Comparative Study of College Students and Police Investigators," by Saul M. Kassin,Christian A. Meissner, and Rebecca J. Norwick. (329 Law and Human Behavior, Vol. 29, No. 2, April 2005)

    “The Problem of False Confessions in the Post-DNA World," by Steven A. Drizin and Richard A. Leo. (2004)

    "In this Article, we analyze 125 recent cases of proven interrogation-induced false confessions (i.e., cases in which indisputably innocent individuals confessed to crimes they did not commit) and how these cases were treated by officials in the criminal justice system." (82 North Carolina Law Review 891 (2004)

    “True Crimes, False Confessions: Why Do Innocent People Confess?" by Saul M. Kassin and Gisli H. Gudjonsson. (2005)

    "In 1989 a female jogger was beaten senseless, raped and left for dead in New York City's Central Park." From Scientific American, June 2005)

    "False Confession," from Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. (January 2008)

    Online encyclopedia entry with brief summaries of Central Park jogger, Pizza Hut murder, Corethian Bell, Jessie Misskelley, Simon Marshall, 1.6 Stephen Downing, Jeffrey Mark Deskovic, Michael Crowe, Japan, Robert Hubert, Laverne Pavlinac, John Mark Karr.

    "Bringing Reliability Back In: False Confessions and Legal Safeguards in the Twenty-First Century,” by Richard A. Leo, et al. (Wisconsin Law Review 2006)

    "Although the Central Park Jogger case remains one of the most staggering miscarriages of justice in modern history, it is not unique. There are now over 170 DNA exonerations of convictions, approximately 20 to 25 percent of which resulted in whole or in part from police-induced false confessions." By Richard A. Leo, Steven A. Drizin, Peter J. Neufeld, Bradley R. Hall and Amy Vatner.(Wisconsin Law Review 2006 Volume 2, Page 479-538)

    "Experts Say False Confessions Come From Leading Questions, High-Pressure Interrogations," by Edward Humes. (October 27, 2004)

    "The police had used lies, false promises, isolation from parents and attorneys, even threats of adult prison and predatory older inmates to persuade the teenager to drop his protestations of innocence." (Orange County Register)

    "Expert on False Confessions Testifies; Judge Won't Let Him Give Opinion," by Mark Sauer. (San Diego Tribune, April 29, 2004)

    News articles on trials where eyewitness identification "expert" Richard Leo was not allowed to testify or not allowed to give an opinion. (Reposted articles by InjusticeBusters.Com)

    "Interrogative Suggestibility, Compliance and False Confessions Among Prisoners and their Relationship with ADHD." (February 14, 2008)

    (Abstract only) "The participants were 90 male prisoners, all of whom had completed the Gudjonsson Suggestibility and Compliance Scales (GSS and GCS) within 10 days of admission to the prison. Childhood ADHD symptoms were screened by the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS)." From Psychology and Medicine, by G H Gudjonsson, J F Sigurdsson, O O Bragason, A K Newton, E Einarsson, Department of Psychology, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.

    Confessions of a Forensic Psychologist: Why do People Admit to Crimes They Never Committed?" by Bob Woffinden. (The Guardian Dec 17, 2002)

    Bob Woffinden meets Gisli Gudjonsson, whose pioneering studies changed the face of law. "We know how it used to be. DI Barlow would cajole, insinuate, assert, shout, threaten, bully, bang the table and use whatever forms of persuasion, emotional blackmail or verbal assault were necessary to make the suspect break down and confess. The suspect was led away, usually weeping, and the end credits would roll."

    The Norfolk Four: Miscarriage of Justice - False Confessions.

    Dr. Richard Ofshe, a sociologist and leading expert on interrogation, has focused his research and writing for nearly twenty years on the influence of interrogation tactics on a suspect’s decisions to falsely confess to a crime. Dr. Ofshe has said that this case is the “most egregious” he has encountered in his nearly twenty years of studying interrogation and false confessions.

    "False Confessions: Common Mis-Beliefs (2007 Innocence Network Conference)

    Power Point presentation presented at the 2007 Annual Conference of the Innocence Network in Boston.This panel covered how and why the strategies of psychological interrogation lead innocent persons to confess. The session focused on case histories where police have fabricated false confessions by feeding “non-public” details to suspects and then claiming these details, when repeated, demonstrate the suspect’s guilt.

    Biographical Profile and Curriculum Vitae of Richard A. Leo, Ph.D., J.D., expert on False Confessions.

    Biographical Profile and Curriculum Vitae of Richard J. Ofshe, "expert" on False Confessions.
    Biographical Profile and Curriculum Vitae of Steven A. Drizin, "expert" on False Confessions.
    Biographical Profile, Books, Research, Trial Consulting of Saul Kassin, "expert" on False Confessions.

    Eyewitness Identification

    "Understand the Causes: Eyewitness Misidentification." (The Innocence Project)
    "Eyewitness misidentification is the single greatest cause of wrongful convictions nationwide, playing a role in more than 75% of convictions overturned through DNA testing." Link to: Fix the System: Eyewiness Identification Reform.

    "Amicus Brief: Eyewitness Misidentification Leading Cause of Wrongful Convictions." (2005)

    The amicus brief was submitted in the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit on behalf of the Center on Wrongful Convictions and the MacArthur Justice Center at the University of Chicago Law School in the case Richardson v. Briley.

    "Eyewitness Identification, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Thorough online encyclopedia entry. Known Cases of Eyewitness Error; Causes of Eyewitness Error; The Law of Eyewitness Identification Evidence in Criminal Trials; Reform Efforts; References.

    "Eyewitness Evidence: A Guide for Law Enforcement." (National Institute of Justice 1999)

    Initial Report of the Crime/First Responder; Mug Books and Composites; Procedures for Interviewing the Witness by the Followup Investigator; Field Identification Procedure (Showup); Lineups; Recording Identification Results.(43 pages) Developed and Approved by the Technical Working Group for Eyewitness Evidence, U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, October 1999.

    Homepage of Professor Gary L. Wells, expert on Eyewitness Identification.

    Biographical Profile and Curriculum Vitae of Professor Gary L. Wells, Department of Psychology, Iowa State University; Breaking news, articles and useful materials from one of the foremost experts on eyewitness identification.

    Forensics Library: Eyewitness Identification (NLADA 2004)

    Excellent resource from the National Legal Aid & Defender Association - Eyewitness ID Wrongful Convictions; Defense Expert Materials; Research Articles; Court Opinions; Training Materials; Pleadings; Websites; Legislative Reforms; Government Expert Materials; Illinois Study.

    "Misidentification: The Caprices of Eyewitness Testimony in Criminal Cases," by Ray Moses. (Center for Criminal Justice Advocacy 2001)

    The Center for Criminal Justice Advocacy was formed as a free, nonpartisan, grassroots training resource to assist new lawyers in becoming competent criminal trial practitioners. "As a lawyer, you have to deal with the propensity of eyewitnesses to misperceive, misrepresent, misrecollect,and misinterpret. The cases readily reflect the defender's duty to make certain that the client is not a victim of misidentification."

    Eyewitness Identification Laboratory at the University of Northern Iowa.

    Founded by Dr. Otto H. MacLin, The Eyewitness Laboratory focuses on research in eyewitness memory and identification, and many aspects of face recognition. The Laboratory offers instruction and research training for both graduate and undergraduate students. Current Research, Related Links, Bibliographies and Abstracts.

    Eyewitness Identification Research Laboratory at the University of Texas at El Paso.

    "System variables" are factors affecting eyewitness identifications that are under the control of the criminal justice system. We have developed working bibliographies for the following topics. "Estimator Variables" are factors whose impact on eyewitness identifications can only be estimated after the fact. Psychological Processes in eyewitness memory. This research center, led by Dr. Roy Malpass, has extensive topical indices and bibliographies on eyewitness identification; Current Research, Linls.

    "Eyewitness Identification." (New York State Defenders Association January 2008)

    Current Developments with links, Special Reports and Artcles with links, Eyewitness Experts with links, Research Links, from

    North Carolina Actual Innocence Commission: Recommendations for Eyewitness Identification.

    Report of a working study commission of the North Carolina Supreme Court, whose primary objective is "to make recommendations which reduce or eliminate the possibility of the wrongful conviction of an innocent person." (February 2003)

    "You Can't Always Believe Your Eyes; How Police Lineups Go Wrong," by Steve Chapman. (Reasononline March 31, 2008)

    Short article addressing the probllems with mistaken eyewitness identifications. "Eyewitness testimony can be extremely useful in catching criminals, but it needs safeguards to make sure it doesn't nab the innocent. After all the wrongful convictions in recent years, no one should have trouble seeing that."

    "Eyewitness Identification." (Truth in Justice)

    "Eyewitness identification is one of the most potent and effective tools available to police and prosecutors. It is compelling, and time after time, it convinces juries of the guilt of a defendant. The problem is, eyewitness identifications are WRONG at least 50% of the time!" With dozens of case histories and links to articles.

    "Expert Testimony on Eyewitness Memory and Identification," by Kathy Pezdek. (2006)

    Scholarly article on the acceptance of psychological research indicating the common errors of misidentification by eyewitnesses in criminal trials. (Pages 99-117)

    "The Proposed Innocence Protection Act Won’t—Unless It Also Curbs Mistaken Eyewitness Identifications," by Margery Koosed. (OSU Law Journal 2002)

    "Jurors are trusting mistaken eyewitness identification testimony. They are returning mistaken convictions, and risking mistaken executions. The author urges that federal and state Innocence Protection legislation should include provisions to avert erroneous eyewitness identifications." By Margery Malkin Koosed in the Ohio State Law Journal.

    "Beyond the Ken? Testing Jurors’ Understanding of Eyewitness Reliability Evidence," by Richard S. Schmechel, et al. (2006)

    The most common rationale for excluding eyewitness identification expert witnesses is that their findings are not “beyond the ken” of the average juror. To empirically test this “beyond the ken” rationale, an independent survey of potential jurors in the District of Columbia was designed to investigate whether jurors understand, as a matter of common sense, what makes some eyewitness identifications more or less reliable than others. By Richard S. Schmechel, Timothy P. O’Toole, Catharine Easterly, and Elizabeth F. Loftus, 46 Jurimetrics J. 177–214 (2006).

    Moratorium

    "Illinois Governor Ryan Declares Moratorium on Executions." (Press Release January 31, 2000)
    Press Release issued by Illinois Governor George H. Ryan suspending all executions in the state of Illinois, and appointing a Commission to review the capital punishment system in Illinois.

    "A Talk With Governor George Ryan," by Bruce Shapiro. The Nation January 8, 2001)

    Interview with Illinois Governor responsible for the moratorium on executions, his background, experience, and reasoning in making the decision.

    A Call for a Moratorium on the Death Penalty in Illinois from the Chicago Council of Lawyers. (March 21, 1997)

    Resolution of Illinois Lawyers group that very much sounds like the blueprint adopted by Governor Ryan three years later.

    Moratorium Resolution of the American Psychological Association. (August 2001)

    "The APA calls upon each jurisdiction in the United States that imposes capital punishment not to carry out the death penalty until the jurisdiction implements policies and procedures that can be shown through psychological and other social science research to ameliorate the deficiencies identified above."

    "Why I Support The Illinois Death Penalty Moratorium Campaign," by Congressman Jesse Jackson, Jr. (1997)

    Short press release of Illinois Congressman justifying his stance against the death penalty and for a moratorium on Illinois executions.

    "Sick Joke - Or Dead Constitution Walking," by Bob Harris. (Sonoma County Independent February 27, 1997)

    News article outlining the fatal ills of the Death Penalty and extolling the virtues of the ABA call for a moratorium. "Capital punishment is quickly transforming the Bill of Rights itself into a Dead Man Walking. The ABA has taken an important step in acknowledging that the death penalty doesn't work. The next step is to accept that it never will."

    Moratorium Now!, a Campaign of Equal Justice USA, A Project of the Quixote Center

    Self-described project seeking to expand public opposition to the death penalty, as well as bring into clear focus the racial, economic and political biases active in U.S. courts, prisons, jails and policing agencies.

    Message Supporting a Moratorium on the Death Penalty from The Dalai Lama.

    Statement from the Dalai Lama, read by Kobutsu Shido at the "Creating a Legacy" event. (April 9, 1999).

    Colorado Bar Association Moratorium Resolution. (December 2000)

    Resolution passed by the Colorado Bar association Board of Governors on December 9, 2000, with a detailed response by the Colorado District Attorneys’ Council.

    "Nebraska Poised to Approve Death Penalty Moratorium." (The Independent.Com/AP May 18, 1999)

    News article asking the questions: Why here? Why now? On the verge of the Nebraska Legislature approving a moratorium on executions.

    "UN Assembly Calls for Moratorium on Death Penalty." (Reuters News December 18, 2007)

    "The U.N. General Assembly passed a nonbinding resolution on Tuesday calling for a moratorium on the death penalty, overcoming protests from a bloc of states that said it undermined their sovereignty. The resolution, which calls for "a moratorium on executions with a view to abolishing the death penalty," was passed by a 104 to 54 vote, with 29 abstentions."

    The Moratorium Campaign.

    Here, at The Moratorium Campaign, we are working to see every state declare a moratorium on executions. We are currently mapping out a plan of action to help people throughout the country take solid, practical steps towards achieving a moratorium in their state. From Sister Helen Prejean, Founder

    "Execution Moratoriums, Commutations and Deterrence: The Case of Illinois," by Dale O. Cloninger & Roberto Marchesini. (2006)

    Abstract of Paper by Dale O. Cloninger & Roberto Marchesini, University of Houston-Clear Lake. "In January 2003 just prior to leaving office, the Governor commuted the death sentences of all of those who then occupied death row. It is found that these actions are coincident with the increased risk of homicide incurred by the residents of Illinois over the 48 month post-event period for which data were available. The increased risk produced an estimated 150 additional homicides during the post-event period. " (Applied Economics, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 967-973 (May 20, 2006)

    Texas Moratorium Network.

    The Texas Moratorium Network is a grassroots network of volunteers and organizations working to establish a moratorium on the death penalty in Texas.

    "Moratorium Movement Growing Against Government Killings: Philadelphia City Council." (The Progress Report 2000)

    "Reno Says She Finds No Basis for Moratorium on Federal Death Penalty," by Terry Frieden. (CNN September 12, 2000)
    "Zeal to End the Death Penalty Growing," by Robert F. Drinan. (National Catholic Reporter June 16, 2000)
    "Death Knell for the Death Penalty? by Mark Hansen. (ABA Journal Cover Story June 2000)
    Testimony of Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold on National Death Penalty Moratorium Act. (2000)
    "New York Death Penalty Moratorium Resolution from the New York State Defenders Association. (July 25, 2002)

    ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project

    The American Bar Association Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project.
    "The Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project, led by director Deborah Fleischaker, was launched by the American Bar Association (ABA) in September 2001 as the "next step" towards a nationwide moratorium on executions. The Project was created to encourage other bar associations to press for moratoriums in their jurisdictions and to encourage state government leaders to establish moratoriums and undertake detailed examinations of capital punishment laws and processes in their jurisdictions." With links to Resolutions and State Assessment Team Reports.

    Evaluating Fairness and Accuracy in State Death Penalty Systems: The Death Penalty Assessment Report - An Analysis of State Death Penalty Laws, Procedures, and Practices. (February 2007 American Bar Association)

    State by state analysis: (Alabama, Arizona, Florida, Georgia, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee) Naturally concluding that the death penalty systems in each state are "deeply flawed." Notorious for the anti-death penalty views of authors.

    1997 ABA Resolution Seeking a Moratorium on the Death Penalty. (American Bar Association)
    1997 ABA Resolution Seeking a Moratorium on the Death Penalty. (CourtTV)

    Resolution adopted by the House of Delegates of the American Bar Association on February 3, 1997, calling for a moratorium on carrying out death sentences in the United States until the jurisdiction (1) ensures that death penalty cases are administered fairly and impartially, in accordance with due process, and (2) minimizes the risk that innocent persons may be executed. [3. until all Prosecutors are villified and all fees are paid!]

    "A Gathering Momentum: Continuing Impacts of the ABA Call for a Moratorium on Executions." (January 2000)

    Report from the American Bar Association Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities. (148 pg) Legislative, Executive, and Judicial activity and developments toward a moratorium; Impacts within and beyond the legal community.

    Renewed Call for a Moratorium on the Death Penalty by the ABA. (2000)

    July 10, 2000 Press Release from the incoming President of the American Bar Association, Martha Barnett, renewing the call for a moratorium on the federal death penalty, and urging lawyers to review death penalty systems in their states.

    "Building Momentum: The American Bar Association Call for a Moratorium on Executions Takes Hold; A Summary of Moratorium Resolution Impacts from August 2001 through June 2003. (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project August 2003)

    The fourth report produced by the American Bar Association to summarize legislative, judicial, public policy, and other developments that have occurred since the ABA’s adoption of the death penalty moratorium resolution in February 1997.

    Liebman / Columbia University Study

    "A Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973-1995," Liebman and Fagan, Columbia University.
    "A Broken System: Error Rates in Capital Cases, 1973-1995," Liebman and Fagan, Columbia University.
    Causing a media sensation, researchers at Columbia University studied more than 4,578 death penalty appeals from 1973 to 1995 and released a report claiming that nationally 68% of all death penalty sentences are overturned on appeal. The study was authored by Columbia University Professors James S. Liebman and Jeffrey Fagan and graduate student Valerie West.

    "A Broken System: Part II," Liebman, Fagan, and Gelman, Columbia University.

    Why There Is So Much Error in Capital Cases, and What Can Be Done About It - Follow-up report authored by Columbia University Professors James S. Liebman, Jeffrey Fagan, and Andrew Gelman with graduate students Valerie West, Garth Davies, and Alexander Kiss. "There is growing awareness that serious, reversible error permeates America's death penalty system, putting innocent lives at risk, heightening the suffering of victims, leaving killers at large, wasting tax dollars, and failing citizens, the courts and the justice system."

    Capital Appeals Revisited," by Barry Latzer and James N. G. Cauthen. (2000)

    A review of the Columbia University Study shows that it is flawed by inadequate research, faulty methodology, and reaches an unsupportable conclusion. A reexamination of this previous study of error-rate in capital cases suggests that the system is not “broken,” despite the media accepting such a conclusion without asking any questions. Published in Judicature, Volume 84, No. 2 (September-October 2000), and reposted on the John Jay College Library web site.

    "Death Penalty Error Study has Errors of Its Own." (Criminal Justice Legal Foundation June 19, 2000)

    A study announced today by anti-death penalty activists claiming to show that American capital sentences are "fraught with error" is itself riddled with unjustified assumptions and false statements, according to CJLF.

    "Death Penalty Report Widely Misinterpreted." (National Center for Policy Analysis)

    Excerpts from a June 16, 2000 Wall Street Journal Article: "We're Not Executing the Innocent," written by by Paul G. Cassell. (University of Utah).

    The Center on Crime, Communities & Culture.

    The goal of the Center is to create a better understanding of and support for effective and humane responses to criminal behavior and victimization. The Center works toward this goal by seeking and supporting outstanding and innovative programs in the field of criminal justice, and by providing academic and research fellowships to individuals committed to becoming leaders in criminal justice. On January 1, 1999 James S. Liebman of Columbia University was awarded a Soros Justice Senior Fellowship of $40-70,000 to "identify and implement effective ways to moderate the use of the death penalty in the United States, drawing on original research challenging popular assumptions driving death penalty policy and a carefully structured set of action-focused discussions across ideological and disciplinary lines.

    "Death Penalty Study Ripped," by Teresa Stepzinski. (Jacksonville Times June 23, 2000)

    A nationwide study revealing serious errors in many Florida and Georgia death penalty cases has prosecutors on the defensive, arguing that the report shows a bias against capital punishment."These statistics are an attempt by a certain group to try to make brutal murderers out as victims of the system, . . . Currie, a prosecutor for 20 years, characterized the study as little more than propaganda for death penalty opponents.

    "Justice on the Cheap: The Philadelphia Story," by Michael Kroll. (Death Penalty Information Center May 1992)

    Well-written and lengthy anti-death penalty article concluding that factors of race, geography, and particularly lack of financial resources, make the death penalty unfair, with an emphasis on the experiences in Pennsylvania and Philadelphia. (Citing Professor Liebman's 1990 testimony before Congress for the proposition that 40% of the death penalty cases in federal court are reversed due to incompetent counsel.)

    "Opting for Real Death Penalty Reform," by James S. Liebman. (Ohio State College of Law Journal 2002)

    "Study Fails to Prove that Death Penalty is Unfair," by Brian P. Janiskee and Edward J. Erler (Claremont Institute July 9, 2000)
    "More Death Penalty Demagoguery," by Brian P. Janiskee and Edward J. Erler (Claremont Institute July 31, 2000)
    "Innocence and the death penalty," by Ronald Eisenberg. (Pennsylvania District Attorneys)
    James Liebman, anti-death penalty criminal defense attorney (ProDeathPenalty.Com)
    "Death Sentences Being Overturned in 2 of 3 Appeals," by Fox Butterfield. (NYTimes June 12, 2000)
    Dead Wrong: Capital Punishment Study. (Quivis.Com July 14, 2000)
    Columbia University Press Release on "Landmark" "Groundbreaking" Death Penalty Study. (June 2000)
    Columbia University Press Release With Video/Audio Clips of James S. Liebman. (5:20)
    Short Biography of James S. Liebman, Simon H. Rifkind Professor of Law, Columbia University.
    Columbia Study: "Alabama Doesn't Execute Innocent People," by Bill Pryor. (Huntsville Times July 4, 2000)
    Columbia Study: "US Study Exposes a System Rife With Errors, by Kate Randall. (World Socialist June 22, 2000)
    Columbia Study: "Most Death Penalty Cases Flawed," by Laurie Asseo. (ChicagoLand/AP June 12, 2000)(with Real Audio)
    Columbia Study: "Deadly Questions," by David Johnson. (InfoPlease.Com)
    Columbia Study: "Death Penalty-Still Guilty," editorial by Peter Bronson. (Cincinnati Enquirer June 18, 2000)
    Accuracy In Media Report: Flawed Columbia University Study.(August A 2000)

    Politics and the Death Penalty

    Killing for Votes: The Dangers of Politicizing the Death Penalty Process.
    Death Penalty Information Center Report by Richard C. Dieter (October 1996)

    Judges and the Politics of Death.

    "Judges and the Politics of Death: Deciding Between the Bill of Rights and the Next Election in Capital Cases" by Stephen B. Bright and Patrick J. Keenan (73 Boston University Law Review 759 (May 1995).

    Elected Judges and the Death Penalty in Texas.

    "Elected Judges and the Death Penalty in Texas: Why Full Habeas Corpus Review by Independent Federal Judges Is Indispensable to Protecting Constitutional Rights," by Stephen B. Bright, Southern Center for Human Rights - Texas Law Review, Vol. 78, page 1806, (2000).

    The Politics of Crime and the Death Penalty.

    The Politics of Crime and the Death Penalty: Not "Soft on Crime," But Hard on the Bill of Rights by Stephen B. Bright (39 Saint Louis University Law Journal 479 (Winter, 1995).

    "Killing for Votes," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)

    Part of a long feature article, "Death Trip: The American Way of Execution."

    "Hanging Judges," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)

    Part of a long feature article, "Death Trip: The American Way of Execution." Emphasis on elected appellate judges.

    "The Vain Search for Deadly Accuracy," by Richard Cohen. (Washington Post April 20, 2000)

    You can DNA test to your heart's content, provide money for crackerjack lawyers, look every prosecutor in the eye and make him cross his heart, but the innocent will, inevitably and with certainty, die anyway. If politicians want to ensure that doesn't happen, all they have to do is abolish capital punishment. There's a test for that, too. It's called political courage.

    "Beyond Politics: Why Supreme Court Justices are Appointed for Life," by Roger Cossack. (CNN.Com Law Center July 13, 2000)

    Short article discussing the constitutional basis for the framers making life terms for Supreme Court Justices in order to avoid politics. Also noting that several states have rejected this approach, requiring the justices to stand for election. Also recognizing the importance of the next President's appointments to the bench.

    "Calculating the Risk," by William Saletan. (MotherJones July/August 1999)

    Does the Death Penalty protect innocent life, or endanger it? As fatal errors escalate, voters may reconsider capital punishment.

    "The Law and Politics of the Death Penalty," a Conference at the University of Oregon.

    "The Law and Politics of the Death Penalty: Abolition, Moratorium, or Reform?" (March 1 & 2, 2002) at the University of Oregon , sponsored by the Wayne Morse Center for Law and Politics. Conference Host: Charles J. Ogletree, Jr., with Keynote Speakers Senator Mark Hatfield, Robert Blecker, Bryan Stevenson, Helen Prejean, Stephen B. Bright, and Governor George H. Ryan. (Oregon Law Review will publish a special issue on capital punishment that will include ten papers delivered at this conference. (Oregon Law Review, Spring 2002, Volume 81, Number 1)

    Political Pulse: "Growing Doubts About the Death Penalty," by William Schneider. (The Atlantic Online June 14, 2000)

    "Suddenly, the politics of capital punishment appears to be changing. In 1992, Bill Clinton's support for the death penalty, more than any other issue, signaled to voters that he was a New Democrat. The death penalty became a signature issue for New Democrats."

    Bush/McCain/Obama/Clinton on the Death Penalty

    The Candidates on the Death Penalty. (The Pew Forum on Religion 2008)
    Hillary Clinton, John McCain, Barack Obama, Ron Paul.

    "Give Them Death: Three Leading Democratic Candidates Support Capital Punishment," by Liliana Segura. (AlterNet. January 25, 2008.

    "Opposing the death penalty used to distinguish Democrats from Republicans. Now, across party lines, death is just another day at the office."

    Presidential Candidates on the Death Penalty. (About.Com)

    Hillary Clinton, John McCain, Barack Obama, Mike Huckabee.

    "Barack Obama to Change Death Penalty Law." (Huliq.Com)

    "Barack Obama who runs for U.S. president tries to reform the death penalty law. While an Illinois state senator, Obama was key in getting the state's notorious death penalty laws changed, including a requirement that in most cases police interrogations involving capital crimes must be recorded."

    "Barack Obama on the Death Penalty." (YouTube.Com)2008.

    Video of Barack Obama during Illinois Senate debate, addressing the issue of capital punishment.

    "Clinton and Obama: Crime and Punishment." (Sentencing Law and Policy Blog January 28, 2007)

    Blog entries on the shifting stances of Obama and Clinton on the death penalty.

    "Candidates Asked "What Would Jesus Do?" About the Death Penalty. (Sentencing Law and Policy Blog November 29, 2007)

    Self-proclaimed Christian conservative Republican candidates were asked by a young person to answer the question: "what would Jesus do" about the death penalty. When pressed for an answer, Mike Huckabee said "Jesus was too smart to ever run for public office. That's what Jesus would do."

    "Republicans Are Asked: What Would Jesus Do?" by Mark Silva. (Chicago Tribune November 29, 2007)

    "For a presidential contest in which religion – and indeed the religious faith of at least one candidate – will play a certain role in the choices which many voters make, two questions loom large here: Is every word in the Bible true, and “what would Jesus do’’ about capital punishment."

    "Most Candidates Wrong on Death Penalty," by John Nichols. (CommonDreams.Org January 3, 20080)

    Repposted article from the Madison, Wisconsin Capital Times. "Yet, for the most part, the candidates for the 2008 Democratic and Republican presidential nominations are death penalty supporters — or, perhaps even more objectionably, they are death penalty apologists."

    "Where Candidates Stand on Crime, Death Penalty," by Bob Egelko. (San Francisco Chronicle February 10, 2008)

    News article highlighting the less than firm positions of Obama and Clinton on the death penalty. "Although Clinton and Obama, both lawyers, have some important differences, their positions on two of the most politically sensitive crime issues - the death penalty and gun control - have converged."

    John McCain on the Death Penalty and Other Criminal Justice Issues. (San Francisco Chronicle February 10, 2008)

    News article highlighting the less than firm positions of Obama and Clinton on the death penalty. "Although Clinton and Obama, both lawyers, have some important differences, their positions on two of the most politically sensitive crime issues - the death penalty and gun control - have converged."

    "Still, Candidates Avoid Death Penalty Debate," by Ben Jones. (Yale News March 26, 2008)

    "As contenders for the presidency tailor their campaigns to address predominately middle-class concerns — health care, the economy, Iraq — they are giving short shrift to other issues that, though pressing, fail to capture the attention of their primary demographic."

    "Most Democratic Candidates Duck Death Penalty Issue," by Haider Rizvi. (CommonDreams.Org January 14, 2004)

    Heavily slanted anti-death penalty news article bemoaning the frailure of democratic candidates to take a strong stand against the death penalty.

    "Kerry, Bush at Near Opposite Extremes on Death Penalty," by Patricia Zapor. (Tidings Online September 17, 2004)

    On the 2004 Presidential Campaign: "Kerry would be "the most anti-death penalty president elected in the modern era."

    "Kerry a Firm Foe of the Death Penalty," by Charles Hurt. (Washington Times March 28, 2004)

    "Sen. John Kerry opposes the death penalty almost without exception, making him the first major-party presidential candidate in more than 15 years to take such a strong stand against capital punishment." (Reposted by Texas MOratorium Network.

    "George W. Bush: Governor Death," by Christopher Hitchens. (Salon Magazine August 7, 1999)

    Article questioning why the assembly-line execution machine of Texas Governor Bush has not become a presidential campaign issue.

    "2002 Presidential Candidates' Views on the Death Penalty," by Richard C. Dieter. (DPIC)

    Short summary of candidate views on the death penalty, 2002.

    "Candidates On the Death Penalty," by Jeralyn. (Talk Left November 02, 2003)

    Short summary of candidte views on the death penalty: Dennis Kucinich, Al Sharpton, and Carol Moseley Braun, Wesley Clark, John Kerry, John Edwards, Howard Dean, Dick Gephardt, Joe Lieberman.

    "Candidates' Death Penalty Stances Different, But Same," by Jonathan Margulies. (The Daily Pennsylvanian October 23, 2000)

    "As the 2000 presidential campaign season enters its final days, Bush's record as governor of Texas -- where more executions are carried out per year than in any other state -- is drawing fire as observers on both sides of the death penalty debate the issue and its relevance in the upcoming election. And as comparisons are made between Bush and Vice President Al Gore, the death penalty remains an issue on which the two have the same fundamental stance."

    George W. Bush, U.S. Texecutioner.

    Obviously anti-Bush web site concentrating on his pro-death penalty stance.

    "Dems for Death: How the Candidates Come Down on Capital Punishment," by James Ridgeway. (Village Voice October 29, 2003)

    "While seeking to sugarcoat their positions, six of the nine candidates for the Democratic presidential nomination are for the death penalty. Only Dennis Kucinich, Al Sharpton, and Carol Moseley Braun are in outright opposition."

    "Where the Candidates Stand, Shuffle, and Wallow: The Death Penalty," by James Ridgeway. (Village Voice October 11, 2000)

    Short news article on the positions taken by both Bush and Gore on the death penalty issue.

    "Bush's Death Penalty Dodge," by Alan Berlow. (Salon.Com June 12, 2000)

    Obviously slanted anti-death penalty article critical of Texas Governor Bush's failure to grant clemency and reprieves in death cases during his tenure. Recalls Texas several executions, the press releases, and the decisions made by Bush, including the recent reprieve granted to Ricky McGinn.

    New Mexico Governor Richardson in Support of Death Penalty. (2008)

    "I am in favor of NM's death penalty law. It sends a strong message of zero tolerance for heinous crimes."

    Voices of Celebrities and Entertainers

    "The Practice" Cast Honored by Anti-Death Penalty Group. (CourtTV Online April 20, 2000)
    "Hollywood, Murder and Texas - Gary Graham and the Anti-Death Penalty Movement: A Case Study of Lies, Half-Truths and Intimidation." (Justice For All 1994)
    Mike Farrell and the Death Penalty. (Homepage)
    "Prosecutor-Turned Author (Scott Turow) Blasts Death Penalty," by Len Lazarick. (Chicago Examiner.Com January 24, 2008)
    "Why I Oppose the Death Penalty." (Mike Farrell, Anti-Death Penalty Advocate)
    "M*A*S*H Star Seeks End to Death Penalty," by Lakshmi Chaudhry. (AlterNet November 14, 2000)
    "Hollywood's Death Row Fetish," by Michelle Malkin. (Human Events Online March 2, 2004)
    "Hollywood Fools: Robert Altman, Alec Baldwin and more," by Jonah Goldberg. (National Review Online September 18, 2000)
    "Tookie," Repentance, and Hollywood -- It's Not About Race!" by Marie Jon'. (Renew America December 9, 2005)
    Accuracy In Media Report: Death Penalty Agenda Of The Media; Hollywood's Contribution. (August A 2000)
    Anti-Death Penalty Letter from Mark Twain after Witnessing Hanging. (Chicago Republican May 31, 1868)
    "I Swear on a Stack of Bibles - I Never Said That! I've Been Misquoted!" (Alec Baldwin, Danny Glover) (April 22, 2002)
    "Stars Rally Behind Gang Leader; Celebrities Urge Clemency." (CBSNews November 26, 2005)
    "Celebrities Rush to Embrace Abu-Jamal," by Maureen Faulkner." (Philadelphia Inquirer CBSNews December 5, 2007)

    Notable Death Penalty Quotes

    852 Anti-Death Penalty Quotes.
    Judges 112 Quotes, Prosecutors 51 Quotes, Defense Attorneys 26 Quotes, Law Enforcement 35 Quotes, Criminologists 24 Quotes, Scientists 44 Quotes, Politicians 145 Quotes, Religious Leaders 123 Quotes, Victims' Families 112 Quotes, Death Row Inmates' Families 7 Quotes, Exonerees 34 Quotes, Writers & Philosphers 74 Quotes, Others 65 Quotes.

    Notable Quotes: Death Penalty.

    Albert Camus, George W. Bush, Al Gore, Helen Prejean, John Kerry, Ramsey Clark, Jesse Ventura, Jay Leno, William J. Brennan, Anthony Kennedy, Ralph Nader, Alphonse Karr. (12)

    Notable Quotes: Death Penalty.

    Albert Camus, French philosopher, Gregory Ruff, police lieutenant in Kansas, Lewis Lawes, warden of Sing Sing prison, Iowa State Supreme Court justice in the 1840s, Abolitionist in the 1840s, an attorney general of Pennsylvania in the 1790s, Gerald Heaney, former appellate judge,Desmond Tutu, Pat Brown, former CA governor, Victor Hugo, author of Les Miserables, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, US Supreme Court justice, David Atwood, founder of Texas Coalition Against the Death Penalty, George Ryan, former Illinois Governor, George Ryan, former Illinois Governor, friend of Ben Franklin's, Dr. Rush, Bryan Stevenson, Death Row lawyer, Stephen Bright, human rights attorney, John Paul Stevens, Supreme Court Justice. (19)

    Anti-Death Penalty Quotes from Anna.

    Justice William Brennan, Justice Thurgood Marshall, Sister Helen Prejean, Rev. Joseph E. Lowery, John J. Curtin, Jr., Michael Jordan,Marquis de Lafayette, C.D. Hare, Mary Sue Terry,William Sloane Coffin,Martin Luther King, Jr., Mark Twain, Mark Twain, George Will, Freddie Pitts,William McVeigh, Lou Michel and Dan Herbeck,Miriam Thompson, John Ashcroft,Corretta Scott King, President Lincoln, Arafat, Joseph Stalin, Prof. Dr. Ferdinand Kadecka, Texas Governor Rick Perry, John Hermann, Willie Fisher, General Omar N. Bradley,Adolph Eichmann, Bob Dylan, Earnie Larson, Francis Bacon, John Donne. (34)

    Death Penalty Quotes from ThinkExist.Com.

    Thomas Sowell, Dennis Miller, Nancy Reagan, Alphonse Karr, Albert Camus, George W. Bush, Loesje, Byron R. White, Ann Coulter, Anthony Burgess, Ambrose Bierce (11)

    Anti-Death Penalty Quotes from Lou Wagner.

    Robert Camus, Helen Prejean, Larry Mattera, Helen Prejean, Helen Prejean, Helen Prejean, Helen Prejean, Coretta Scott King, Eberhard Arnold, Helen Prejean, J.R.R. Tolkien, John Morrison. (12)

    Death Penalty Quotes from BrainyQuotes.

    Hundreds of quotes, indexed by subject and author.

    "Dying Words: The Last Words Spoken by Criminals Before Execution." (Brain Candy Celebrity Quotes)

    Notable last words of murderers before execution, from Sir Walter Raleigh to Karla Faye Tucker. (37)

    Miscellaneous Anti-Death Penalty Related Quotes from Brian J. Kinder, Missouri Death Row.

    Thurgood Marshall, Death Penalty Information Center, Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold, Gerald Kogan, Illinois Supreme Court Justice Moses Harrison, Judge Rudolph Gerber, William Broaddus, Jay Smith, Attorney Michael Minerva, Bob Butterworth, Hunter Labovitz, Gary Gilmore, Jesse Bishop, Edward Earl Johnson, Johnny Frank Garrett, John Spinkelink, Bob Micholas, Richard Deiter, Florida Representative Bill McCollum, Brad Janowski, Bryan Stevenson, Gerald Chaleff, Eddie Lee Ross’ court appointed attorney. (23)

    A few short Death Penalty Quotes from Religious Tolerance.Org.

    Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg, NY State Senator James Donovan, Jesus of Nazareth, Dennis Miller, Anon, Detroit News, James W.L. Park, Sister Helen Prejean, C.S.J., Governor George W. Bush, Rev. Joseph A. Fiorenza, Supreme Court of Canada, Elie Wiesel. (13)

    Selected Quotes Against the Death Penalty, from Windows Toward the World. (July 18, 2007)

    George Will, Justice William Brennan, John Donne, Justice Thurgood Marshall, Martin Luther King, Jr, Sister Helen Prejean, Rev. Joseph E. Lowery, Coretta Scott King, Mary Sue Terry. (9)

    Quotes Against the Death Penalty, from California People of Faith.

    Sister Helen Prejean, Archbishop Desmond Tutu, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Harry A., Blackmun, Mahavira, founder of Jainism, Reverend Bernice King, Perry Cobb, President Jimmy Carter, U.S. Supreme Court Justice William Brennan. (8)

    Anti-Death Penalty Quotes, from Virginians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty

    Mary Sue Terry, Attorney General of Virginia, Willaim G. Broaddus, Attorney General of Virginia, Sen. Kenneth Stolle, Honorable Harry Fogle, Former Chief Judge of the Sixth Judicial Circuit, Florida, Rudolph W. Giuliani, James W.L. Park, Dorris Mote, mother of a 14-year-old rape/murder victim. (7)

    Anti-Death Penalty Quotes, from Anti-Death Penalty Information's website.

    Albert Camus, Gregory Ruff, Lewis Lawes, Iowa State Supreme Court justice, Abolitionist in the 1840s , Attorney General of Pennsylvania in the 1790s, Gerald Heaney, former appellate judge, Desmond Tutu, Pat Brown, former CA governor, Victor Hugo, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, David Atwood, George Ryan, George Ryan, friend of Ben Franklin's, Dr. Rush, Bryan Stevenson, Stephen Bright, John Paul Stevens, Supreme Court Justice. (18)

    Famous Quotes Supporting Capital Punishment, from Saqib Ali.

    Thomas Fuller, Michel de Montaigne, Mary Wollstonecraft, Napoleon, Don Feder, Voltaire, Thomas Szasz, Saqib Ali. (10)

    Capital Punishment Quotes, from Wikiquote.

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Katharine Fullerton Gerould, Albert Camus, Potter Stewart, Anton Chekhov, Theodore Roosevelt, Margaret Thatcher, Manfred F. Schieder, Benjamin Tucker, Henry Ford, Orrin Hatch, Don Feder, Saqib Ali, Victor Hugo, Nicolas Chamfort. (15)

    Thoughts on Capital Punishment by Rich Geib.

    Quotes on capital punishment from historical church leaders, including Pope Leo XIII (1901), and the Bishop of Verden (1411), Massachusetts Colony Laws (1641), French Philosopher Michel Eyquen Montaigne (1533-1592), and Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786). (Intended to show that the punishment is often used to quell dissent and heresy)

    Capital Punishment Quotes, from Quotesea.

    Phyllis Schlafly, Guru Nanak, Peter Norden, Leith Kubba, John Carter, Tom Nicholson, Ward Campbell, Sun Huapu, Judge Francis Fecteau, Prof. Charles Mathewes, Bill Douglas, Lionel Jospin, Archbishop Angel Lagdameo, Scott Turow, Kim Norris, Franklin Zimring, Arief Supratman, Jack Templeton. (20)

    Cruel and Unusual Punishment

    The Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Cases on Cruel and Unusual Punishment.
    Audio and transcripts of Oral Argument, Opinion Announcement, Docket, Summary and Written Opinion. The Oyez Project is a multimedia archive devoted to the Supreme Court of the United States and its work. It aims to be a complete and authoritative source for all audio recorded in the Court since the installation of a recording system in October 1955.

    The Costitutionality of Capital Punishment (Wesley Lowe)

    Short summary of arguments supporting the constitutionality of the death penalty as part of the original intent of the framers, and not cruel and unusual punishment.

    "Cruel and Unusual Punishment? We May Have to Find Another Way to Humanely Commit an Inhumane Act," by Larry Petrash. (2008)

    Opinion article. "After researching this subject, I’ve begun asking if it is possible to administer capital punishment without it being cruel and unusual punishment. Perhaps it’s possible in theory, but, in practice, it fails." (Wichita Falls Times Record News January 9, 2008)

    "Attorneys Ask Court to Declare Death Penalty 'Cruel and Unusual' Punishment for Child Rapist," by Dennis Powell. (ABCNews Sept. 11, 2007 .

    Patrick Kennedy, a Louisiana Man, Is Only Inmate on Death Row for a Nonhomicide Offense. News article focusing on the efforts of his lawyers to have his death sentence declared cruel and unusual.

    Florida Supreme Court Opinion Upholding Constitutionality of Electric Chair.

    Thomas H. Provenzano v. Michael W. Moore. (Opinion #95973) Florida Supreme Court opinion upholding the constitutionality of the Electric Chair following the botched executions of Allen Lee Davis and Pedro Medina. Attached photos of Allen Lee Davis in the electric chair. (September 24, 1999)

    "Is the Death Penalty Cruel and Unusual? by John Barry. (SpeakOut.Com May 3, 2000)

    Brief essay addressing whether the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment.

    "Is the Death Penalty Cruel and Unusual?" by Travis Dahle. (Associated Content September 04, 2007

    An Examination of the Court Rulings that Have Allowed the Death Penalty to Continue in the United States.

    "Is the Death Penalty Cruel and Unusual Punishment? (Infoplease)

    Brief essay addressing whether the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment, with emphasis on Atkins v. Virginia and mental retardation. (Excerpted from "The Complete Idiot's Guide to The Supreme Court" by Lita Epstein. (2004)

    "Cruel and Unusual Punishment: The Juvenile Death Penalty - Evolving Standards of Decency. (ABA Juvenile Justice Center 2004)

    Brief essay addressing whether the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment, with emphasis on the execution of juvenile murderers.

    "When Is It 'Cruel and Unusual Punishment'? Supreme Court Bans Juvenile Death Penalty," by Arline Kaplan. (Psychiatric Times. May 1, 2005)

    News article discussing the U.S. Supreme Court Opinion in Roper v. Simmons holding the execution of juvenile murderers to be cruel and unusual punishment.

    "Cruel and Unusual Punishment" from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Brief online encyclopedia entry.

    "Is the Death Penalty Constitutional? (This Nation.Com)

    Brief essay addressing whether the death penalty is cruel and unusual punishment.

    "The Death Penalty: Cruel and Unusual?" by JOS. (Time Magazine January 24, 1972)

    Timely article on the issue of the death penalty as the U.S. Supreme Court hears arguments in the case of Furman v. Georgia.

    Exploring Constitutional Conflicts: The Death Penalty / Cruel and Unusual Punishment. (1999)

    Feature series presented by Professor Doug Linder of the University of Missouri at Kansas City Law School.

    "Emerging Standards of Decency & Sovereignty: The Death Penalty Is Justified, If At All, Only When the State Demonstrates Beyond A Reasonable Doubt That It Cannot Control Defendant's Conduct By Mere Incarceration," by James Joseph Lynch, Jr., Attorney at Law.

    Legal anti-death penalty essay focusing on the 8th Amendment concept of "emerging standards of decency" with historical overview as it relates to the death penalty.

    "Can Inordinate Delay Between a Death Sentence and Execution Constitute Cruel and Unusual Punishment? by Dwight Aarons.

    Dwight Aarons, Associate Professor of Law, The University of Tennessee College of Law. Published in Seton Hall Law Review, Volume 29:147 (February 16, 2000).

    Ring / Apprendi - Judicial Override

    Ring v. Arizona, 536 U.S. 584, 122 S.Ct. 2428, 153 L.Ed.2d 556. (June 24, 2002)
    Defendant was convicted before the Superior Court, Maricopa County of first-degree murder, conspiracy to commit armed robbery, armed robbery, and he appealed. The Arizona Supreme Court, 200 Ariz. 267, 25 P.3d 1139, affirmed. Defendant petitioned for writ of certiorari which was granted. The Supreme Court, Justice Ginsburg, held that Arizona statute pursuant to which, following a jury adjudication of a defendant's guilt of first-degree murder, the trial judge, sitting alone, determines the presence or absence of the aggravating factors required by Arizona law for imposition of the death penalty, violates the Sixth Amendment right to a jury trial in capital prosecutions; overruling Walton v. Arizona, 497 U.S. 639, 110 S.Ct. 3047, 111 L.Ed.2d 511. Reversed and remanded. Justice Scalia filed concurring opinion in which Justice Thomas joined. Justice Kennedy filed concurring opinion. Justice Breyer filed opinion concurring in the judgment. Justice O'Connor filed dissenting opinion in which Chief Justice Rehnquist joined.

    Apprendi v. New Jersey, 530 U.S. 466, 120 S.Ct. 2348, 147 L.Ed.2d 435. (June 26, 2000)

    Defendant was convicted pursuant to guilty plea in the Superior Court, Law Division, Cumberland County, of possession of firearm for unlawful purpose and unlawful possession of prohibited weapon, and defendant was sentenced to extended term under New Jersey's hate crime statute. Defendant appealed. The Superior Court, Appellate Division, 304 N.J.Super. 147, 698 A.2d 1265, affirmed. Defendant appealed. The New Jersey Supreme Court, 159 N.J. 7, 731 A.2d 485, affirmed. Upon granting certiorari, the United States Supreme Court, Justice Stevens, held that: (1) other than fact of prior conviction, any fact that increases penalty for crime beyond prescribed statutory maximum must be submitted to jury and proved beyond reasonable doubt, and (2) state hate crime statute which authorized increase in maximum prison sentence based on judge's finding by preponderance of evidence that defendant acted with purpose to intimidate victim based on particular characteristics of victim violated due process clause. Reversed and remanded. Justice Scalia filed concurring opinion. Justice Thomas filed concurring opinion in which Justice Scalia joined in part. Justice O'Connor filed dissenting opinion in which Chief Justice Rehnquist and Justices Kennedy and Breyer joined. Justice Breyer filed dissenting opinion in which Chief Justice Rehnquist joined.

    Schriro v. Summerlin, 124 S.Ct. 2519. (June 24, 2004)

    Respondent was convicted of first-degree murder and sentenced to death under Arizona’s capital sentencing scheme then in effect, which authorized the trial judge, rather than the jury, to determine the presence of aggravating circumstances that make the defendant eli-gible for the death sentence. The State Supreme Court affirmed on direct review. While respondent’s subsequent federal habeas case was pending in the Ninth Circuit, this Court decided that Apprendi v. New Jersey, 530 U. S. 466, 490, required the existence of an aggra-vating factor to be proved to a jury rather than a judge under Ari-zona’s scheme. Ring v. Arizona, 536 U. S. 584, 603–609. The Ninth Circuit invalidated respondent’s death sentence, rejecting the argu-ment that Ring did not apply because respondent’s conviction and sentence had become final on direct review before Ring was decided. Held: Ring does not apply retroactively to cases already final on direct review.

    "Justices Say Death Penalty Is Up to Juries, Not Judges," by Linda Greenhouse. (New York Times June 25, 2002)

    News report following the Ring v. Arizona decision. "Nearly 800 people are on death row in the nine states where judges ultimately determine sentences, with or without a jury's advisory opinion. While inmates whose appeals have been exhausted face high procedural obstacles to benefiting from the new ruling, dozens, at least, will be entitled to resentencing as a result of the court's 7-to-2 decision."

    The Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Court Cases: Ring v. Arizona. (2002)

    Audio and transcripts of Oral Argument, Opinion Announcement, Docket , Summary and Written Opinion. The Oyez Project is a multimedia archive devoted to the Supreme Court of the United States and its work. It aims to be a complete and authoritative source for all audio recorded in the Court since the installation of a recording system in October 1955.

    "Ring v. Arizona" from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Brief entry in online encyclopedia, discussing the facts of the case, the ruling, and its relationship to Apprendi.

    "Ring v. Arizona: Who Decides Death? by Charles L. Scott, and Joan B. Gerbasi. (2003)

    Thoughtful article on the likely impact of Ring v. Arizona in states where judicial override is allowed. "The Court’s decision may affect nearly 800 death sentences in nine states and may require resentencing of hundreds of inmates. (Arizona, Idaho, Montana, Colorado, Nebraska, Alabama, Delaware, Florida, and Indiana) From the Journal of American Academy of Psychiatric Law 31:106–9, 2003.

    "The Clash of Ring v. Arizona and Teague v. Lane: An Illustration of the Inapplicability of Modern Habeas Retroactivity Jurisprudence in the Capital Sentencing Context," by Katharine A. Ferguson. (Boston University Law Review February 2008)

    Scholarly but defense oriented article discussing the rules of retroactivity in the death penalty context.

    "Judicial Override In Alabama." (Equal Justice Initiative March 2008)

    Report from the anti-death penalty group Equal Justice Initiative. "Of the 198 persons currently on death row in Alabama, 40 were condemned by judicial override."

    "Law Professor Gets Inmate Off Death Row in Legal Victory," by Peter Schuler. (University of Chicago Chronicle March 4, 2004)

    University of Chicago Press Release, noting that one of its law professors, Bernard Harcourt, was successful after a 14 year legal battle of getting Alabama Death Row prisoner Phillip Tomlin a new sentencing without the possibility of death. Tomlin was originally sentenced to death by a Judge 26 years earlier, rejecting a unanimous jury verdict for life imprisonment. The appeal focused upon the requirement that judicial override be guided by specific standards.

    "Capital Punishment," by Stephen Silver, Laura Bissell Auwers. (Georgetown Law Journal June 1998)

    Well written and referenced summary of the law of capital punishment. Advisory verdicts and judicial override is discussed at Page 14.

    "Juries in Death Penalty Sentencing Hearings," by Christopher Reinhart, Senior Attorney. (Connecticut General Assembly)

    Consice report with a state by state breakdown of laws showing what actions result after a jury is unable to unanimously agree on a sentence.

    "Ring: Hammer of Justice, Bell of Freedom... All Over This Land," by Chris Adams. (Death Watch October 2002)

    Short article on the Ring v. Arizona decision, its impact, and the unanswered questions remaining.

    "Court Rejects Death Row Appeals." (CBS/AP June 24, 2004)

    The Supreme Court refused Thursday to overturn the death sentences of more than 100 inmates who argued their fates were improperly determined by judges, not jurors. (Summerlin)

    Alabama: Judicial Override: "The Judge as Lynch Mob," by Ken Silverstein. (American Prospect May 7, 2001)

    Long article on the power of Alabama Judges to override a jury recommendation for a life sentence in death penalty cases, the modern-day equivalent of a lynch mob.

    "26 Years on Death Row: Time to Annul Judicial Override," by Bernard E. Harcourt. (Birmingham News May 11, 2004)

    Article on the release of inmate Phillip Tomlin after 26 years on Alabama Death Row. "In Tomlin's case, since 1990 a series of judges in Mobile improperly exercised that power and imposed a death sentence despite the jury's verdict for life -- only to be told by the Alabama Supreme Court, many years later, that they had failed to properly consider the jury's decision." (Reposted by Torley.Org Forum)

    Habeas Corpus

    "Federal Habeas Corpus: An Abridged Sketch," by Charles Doyle. (April 28, 2006)
    Congressional Research Service Report for Congress, received through the CRS Web. Four page summary of the current state of habeas corpus law in the federal courts, with historical references. From Charles Doyle, Senior Specialist, American Law Division.

    Death Penalty Update: Limiting Habeas Corpus Appeals (PBS Online July 30, 1997)

    Transcript of PBS News Hour segment discussing new federal laws limiting habeas appeals in death penalty cases, with David Crump (University of Houston), Paul Wickes (Defense Attorney), and Bill Taylor (ABA). Also available in Real Audio.

    The California Habeas Corpus Resource Center. (HCRC)

    The Habeas Corpus Resource Center (HCRC), located in San Francisco, provides counsel to represent indigent men and women under sentence of death in California. The HCRC's mission is to provide timely, high-quality legal representation for indigent petitioners in death penalty habeas corpus proceedings before the Supreme Court of California and the federal courts. Established in 1998 to accept appointments in state and federal habeas corpus proceedings, and created as an agency in the judicial branch of the State of California.

    "The New Speed Up in Habeas Corpus Appeals, A Summary," by Ned Walpin. (PBS Online 1996)

    Transcript of PBS News Hour segment discussing new federal laws limiting habeas appeals in death penalty cases, with David Crump (University of Houston), Paul Wickes (Defense Attorney), and Bill Taylor (ABA). Also available in Real Audio.

    Habeas Corpus, A Much-Needed Reform," by Andrew Peyton Thomas. (National Review May 4, 1998)

    Article from a former Assistant Arizona Attorney General. "A much-needed reform seemed poised to hasten executions, until federal judges got their hands on it."

    "Federal Habeas Corpus Review: Challenging State Court Criminal Convictions," by Roger A. Hanson and Henry W.K. Daley. (1995)

    Discussion paper prepared by the Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Center for State Courts. (41 pages September 1995)

    "Why We Can't Let Them Tamper with Habeas Corpus," by Staughton Lynd. (History News Network June 11, 2007)

    "In reality the ancient judicial writ known as “habeas corpus” is the most elemental, existentially relevant pleading in Anglo-American legal practice. It is the form of words that seeks to protect us from indefinite, anonymous, uncharged imprisonment, and that gives a prisoner sentenced to death a last chance to reverse the trial verdict, or at least, the sentence."

    "The ABA and Federal Habeas Corpus," by Larry W. Yackle, Boston University Professor of Law. (1998)

    Thorough and well-referenced law review article evaluating the claims of the American Bar Association that recent changes in Habeas Corpus law in the federal courts have significantly and unfairly limited the rights of capital defendants. The conclusion, of course, is that the ABA is right. (61 Law & Contemp. Probs. 171 Autumn 1998)

    "The Death Penalty and Habeas Corpus: Taking Stock, and Looking Ahead," by Vivian Berger. (ACLU October 1, 1997)

    Brief position statement by Vivian Berger, ACLU General Counsel, opposing limitations in Habeas Corpus appeals in death penalty cases.

    "Federal Appeals Under Attack! The Streamlined Procedures Act." (NCADP)

    Brief summary of new changes to limit Habeas Corpus appeals in capital cases, with links to pro-death penalty groups who oppose the new limitations, from National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.

    "Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Brief online encyclopedia entry.

    "Does the Bill of Rights Apply Here Any More? Evisceration of Habeas Corpus," by Stephen B. Bright. (NACDL, November 1996)

    Opinion page from The Champion, a publication of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers.

    A Prisoner's Right?: Limiting Habeas Corpus Appeals (PBS Online, June 3, 1996)

    Transcript of PBS News Hour segment discussing new federal laws limiting habeas appeals in death penalty cases, and a recent case (Ellis Wayne Felkerin) front of the U.S. Supreme Court on the issue. Also available in Real Audio.

    "Rehnquist Urges Curb on Appeals of Death Penalty," by Linda Greenhouse. (New York Times May 16, 1990)

    "Declaring that the system for handling death penalty appeals in the Federal courts ''verges on the chaotic,'' Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist today issued his most direct call for passage of a bill to place strict new limits on appeals by death row prisoners."

    Habeas Corpus Review Blog.

    News and Commentary on the "Great Writ of Liberty" and the Death Penalty, with news reports and commentary on Habeas Corpus in the Federal Courts.

    Mental Illness and the Death Penalty

    Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304, 122 S. Ct. 2242, 153 L.Ed. 2d 335. (June 20, 2002)
    Petitioner Atkins was convicted of capital murder and related crimes by a Virginia jury and sentenced to death. Affirming, the Virginia Su­preme Court relied on Penry v. Lynaugh, 492 U. S. 302, in rejecting Atkins’ contention that he could not be sentenced to death because he is mentally retarded. Held: Executions of mentally retarded criminals are “cruel and unusual punishments” prohibited by the Eighth Amendment.

    The Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Court Cases: Atkins v. Virginia. (2002)

    Audio and transcripts of Oral Argument, Opinion Announcement, Docket , Summary and Written Opinion. The Oyez Project is a multimedia archive devoted to the Supreme Court of the United States and its work. It aims to be a complete and authoritative source for all audio recorded in the Court since the installation of a recording system in October 1955.

    Execution of the Mentally Retarded (Death Penalty Information Center)

    List of 44 allegedly mentally retarded inmates who have been executed since 1976, by name, state, race, IQ, and date of execution; News and Developments; State Legislative guide.

    State Statutes Prohibiting Execution of Retarded (Death Penalty Information Center)

    List of state statutes prohibiting the Death Penalty for persons with Mental Retardation, with statute citations, definitions, and short summaries of each.

    Execution of the Mentally Retarded (Fight the Death Penalty in USA)

    List of 32 mentally retarded inmates who have been executed since 1976, by name, state, race, IQ, and date of execution; Texas newspaper editorials and articles.

    "Mental Illness and the Death Penalty: Alan Matheney," by Angela M. Vuotto, DO, J. Richard Ciccone, MD. (2006)

    Brief article in the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law (34:2:253-255), highlighting the Indiana execution of Alan Matheney, and discussing the difference between mental retardation and mental illness.

    Mental Illness and the Death Penalty, Recommendation 122A of the American Bar Association. (August 7-8, 2006)

    "Defendants should not be executed or sentenced to death if, at the time of the offense, they had significant limitations in both their intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior, as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills, resulting from mental retardation, dementia, or a traumatic brain injury."

    The Death Penalty and People With Mental Illness, Policy Position P-44 from the National Mental Health Association.

    "Our current system of justice inadequately addresses the complexity of cases involving criminal defendants with mental illness. Therefore, NMHA calls upon states to suspend using the death penalty until more just, accurate and systematic ways of determining and considering a defendant’s mental status are developed."

    "Mental Illness and the Death Penalty in the United States." (ACLU January 31, 2005)

    "Over 60 people diagnosed as mentally ill or with mental retardation have been executed in the United States since 1983. While precise statistics are not available, it is estimated that 5 to 10 percent of people on death row have a serious mental illness."

    "Beyond Reason: The Death Penalty and Offenders with Mental Retardation." (Human Rights Watch March 2001)

    Thorough and well-referenced anti-death penalty article on the execution of the mentally retarded. Overview; Legal Standards; Miscarraiges of Justice in Capital Trials; Criminal Culpability; Individualized Sentence Determination; 16 Defendants with retardation and their stories.

    "Beyond Reason: Executing Persons with Mental Retardation," by Jamie Fellner. (ABA 2001)

    Pre-Atkins anti-DP article from the Section of Individual Rights & Responsibilities of the American Bar Association. (Summer 2001)

    "Young and Retarded are Fair Game," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)

    Part of a long feature article, "Death Trip: The American Way of Execution." Emphasis on executions of juveniles and mentally incompetent defendants.

    "Defending Categorical Exemptions to the Death Penalty," by Carol & Jordan Steiker. (Law & Contemp. Probs. Autumn 1998)

    Lengthy Duke University article reflecting on the American Bar Association Resolutions concerning the execution of juveniles and persons with mental retardation.

    The Arc of the United States, A National Organization on Mental Retardation.

    The country's largest voluntary organization committed to the welfare of all children and adults with mental retardation and their families. (formerly the Association for Retarded Citizens of the United States)

    "Execution vs. Treating Ills," by Michael King. (Christian Science Monitor, August 16, 1999)

    Short article on the upcoming Texas execution of Larry Robinson, who allegedly committed 5 murders where the "evidence is abundant that Robison was completely insane at the time of the murders."

    "Can Low-IQ Convicts Be Put on Death Row?" (Christian Science Monitor, March 26, 2001)

    Short article on the upcoming hearing before the United States Supreme Court in the case of John Paul Penry on Texas death row.

    "What About Retarded Criminals," by Bruce Shapiro. (Salon.Com June 13, 2001)

    Although Bush says they shouldn't be executed, his Texas record shows otherwise, fueling the division between America and Europe over the death penalty.

    "Eddie Mitchell: Mentally Fit to Die?" by Abbie Boudreau. (Medill News Service 2000)

    Short article on the status of Eddie Mitchell, on Louisiana Death Row since 1992 with an IQ of 66. (From Northwestern University Medill School of Journalism)

    Juveniles and the Death Penalty

    Roper v. Simmons, 543 U.S. 551 (March 1, 2005).
    At age 17, respondent Simmons planned and committed a capital murder in Missouri. After he had turned 18, he was sentenced to death. Simmons filed a new petition for state postconviction relief, arguing that Atkins' reasoning established that the Constitution prohibits the execution of a juvenile who was under 18 when he committed his crime. The Missouri Supreme Court agreed and set aside Simmons' death sentence in favor of life imprisonment without eligibility for release. It held that, although Stanford v. Kentucky, 492 U. S. 361, rejected the proposition that the Constitution bars capital punishment for juvenile offenders younger than 18, a national consensus has developed against the execution of those offenders since Stanford. Held: The Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments forbid imposition of the death penalty on offenders who were under the age of 18 when their crimes were committed. Pp. 6-25.

    The Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Court Cases: Roper v. Simmons (2005).

    Audio and transcripts of Oral Argument, Opinion Announcement, Docket , Summary and Written Opinion. The Oyez Project is a multimedia archive devoted to the Supreme Court of the United States and its work. It aims to be a complete and authoritative source for all audio recorded in the Court since the installation of a recording system in October 1955.

    "The Juvenile Death Penalty Today: Death Sentences and Executions for Juvenile Crimes," by Victor L. Streib.

    Comprehensive and authoritative work by Victor L. Streib, Professor of Law at Ohio Northern University, available only in electronic format. Historical background; Execution of Juvenile Offenders January 1973 - April 30, 2004 by name, state, date of execution, age at crime, age at execution; Legal Context; Minimum Death Penalty Ages by American Jurisdiction; Foreign Countries; Juvenile Death Sentences Imposed January 1973 - April 30, 2004 by state and by year; Current Death Row Juvenile Inmates with short case summaries. (Updated May 4, 2004)

    Juvenile Death Penalty Proposed. (NBC)

    NBC News article by Clif Caldwell in the wake of the Jonesboro, Arkansas shootings, spotlighting the efforts of an Arkansas legislator to reduce the minimum age for the death penalty from 17 to 10.

    "Children and the Death Penalty: Executions Worldwide Since 1990." (Amnesty International 2002)

    Thorough report on the execution of "juvenile" offenders from Amnesty International, listing all such executions in any country since 1990, International Treaties and Human Rights Standards, U.N Resolutions. (September 25, 2002)

    "The Exclusion of Child Offenders From the Death Penalty Under General International Law." (Amnesty International 2003)

    "This paper examines the evidence supporting the conclusion that the use of the death penalty against child offenders is prohibited under customary international law and as a peremptory norm of general international law." (July 18, 2003)

    "Teen Brains on Trial; The Science of Neural Development," by Bruce Bower." (Science News May 8, 2004)

    New data on teens' unfinished brain development may aid efforts to get rid of the juvenile death penalty in the United States.

    Fight the Death Penalty in the U.S.A.

    Complete listing of all current death row inmates in the United States convicted of murder when they were under the age of 18, arranged by state.

    Juveniles and the Death Penalty. (Death Penalty Information Center)

    Case Summaries for Death Row Inmates Under Juvenile Death Sentences; Facts about Gary Graham on Texas Death Row; Juveniles executed since 1976; Jurisdictions with an age minimum of 18 for capital punishment; Short summary of the work of Victor L. Streib; links to anti-death penalty articles.

    "Too Young to Vote, Old Enough to be Executed." (Amnesty International)

    Amnesty International/Death Penalty USA article on the upcoming Texas execution of Napoleaon Beazley, 17 when he committed capital murder. Interviews with the Beazley family and details of his trial and appeal. Includes statistics of juvenile executions in Texas and worldwide. (July 31, 2001)

    "The Myth of Executing Children," by Jeff Jacoby. (FreeReupublic.Com June 6, 2002)

    Columnist bypasses the anti-death penalty rhetoric to recognize a simple fact: No state allows the death sentence for anyone younger than 16, and no one younger than 23 has been executed in modern times. (Boston Globe)

    Amnesty International/Death Penalty USA Pages: Time to Stop Executing Juvenile Offenders.

    Amnesty International Press Release demanding that the USA join the modern world and stop executing juvenile offenders. (August 16, 2001)

    "Stop Killing Kids: Why it's Time to End the Indecent Practice of the Juvenile Death Penalty." (ACLU October 25, 2004)

    American Civil Liberties Union position paper.

    "Juvenile Death Penalty," by Felisha Vincent. (International Encyclopedia of Justice Studies December 2002)

    "During the recent period of increased violent crime, there has been a shift toward stronger policies and punishments. This shift included the waiver of more juveniles to the adult court system. This also led to the increasing number of juveniles committing capital offenses before the age of 18. These offenses carried the penalty of the death penalty or life without parole."

    Juveniles on Death Row - Juveniles Executed in the United States (1976 - August 2005)

    Name, Race, DOB, and State of each juvenile offender on death row; Name, Race, State, Date of Execution, Age at Murder, age at Execution. From the International Justice Project.

    "Killing Hope: the Imminent Execution of Sean Sellers." (Amnesty International, December 1998)

    Summary of trial errors, mitigating factors, and international laws broken relating to the upcoming execution of Oklahoma death row prisoner Sean Sellers, 16 years old when he murdered a shop clerk and both of his stepparents.

    "On the Wrong Side of History: Children and the Death Penalty in the USA." (Amnesty International, Oct 1998)

    Arguments against the execution of juvenile offenders, with historical and worldwide references, and a list of those executed in the United States since 1977, and those currently on Death Row.

    "The Slippery Slope of Executing Children," by Kevin Acers. (Oklahoma Coalition to Abolish DP)

    Essay noting that the United States has failed to adopt the International Convention on the Rights of the Child. "The word "barbaric" comes to mind. But if we take a look at the death penalty in our own country today, we’ll see that we are standing on a very slippery slope."

    United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Red Cross)

    "Article 37 - (a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below 18 years of age." (Adopted by the U.N. General Assembly on November 20, 1989).

    "Dead Teen Walking: Shareef Cousin." (Time.Com, January 19, 1998)

    The United States is one of the few nations that put juveniles on death row. Shareef Cousin is one of them. On Death Row in Louisiana, he may be innocent. Five Part series from Time.Com by Christopher John Farley and James Willwerth.

    Juveniles Against Capital Punishment.

    Norwegian anti-death penalty site, in cooperation with the Junior Bannister Foundation.

    NPR audio report on upcoming Texas execution of Joseph John Cannon, juvenile offender. (April 22, 1998)

    "Too immature to understand the consequences?" If you can't vote, can't watch R rated movies, can't buy cigarettes, then why should you be subjected to the death penalty? (National Public Radio, 8 minutes Real Audio)

    "Can Violent Criminals be Too Young to Execute?" by Silvio Carrillo. (SpeakOut.Com May 3, 2000)

    Short article discussing the 2000 executions of "juveniles" in Virginia and Texas, from SpeakOut.Com, with links to articles and organizations.

    George Stinney, The Youngest Person executed in the U.S. in 1900's. (The Crime Library)

    Short article and mugshot of Michael Stinney, executed in South Carolina in 1944 at the age of 14 for the murder of two white girls, aged 8 and 11.

    "Opposition to Executing Juveniles Grows," by Richard Willing. (USA Today Excerpt January 24, 2000)

    Short excerpt from USA Today article on the execution of juveniles from the National Center for Policy Analysis, as part of discussion on Crime and Gun Control.

    "Wasted Youth," by Vince Beiser. (MotherJones December 23, 1999)

    Anti-DP article critical of U.S. executions of "juveniles": Almost every nation on earth has banned executions of juvenile offenders -- but in the US in January, a record four people are scheduled to die for crimes committed while they were kids.

    Race and Class Bias

    "The Death Penalty in Black & White: Who Lives, Who Dies, Who Decides," by Richard Dieter, DPIC. (June 1998)
    "Pro & Con: The Death Penalty in Black and White," by Dudley Sharp, Justice For All. (June 24, 1999)
    Race, Sentencing, and the Death Penalty. (October 1, 1997 Justice For All)
    Racism and Capital Punishment. (October 1, 1999 Wesley Lowe)
    "Racial Disparities in the Capital of Capital Punishment," by Scott Phillips. (45 Houston Law Review 2008)
    "The Myth of Racism in American Capital Cases, or The UN’s Ignorance on the Death Penalty," by John Perazzo. (August 13, 2001)
    "The Myth of Racism in the Death Penalty," by David Andrew Price. (National Center for Policy Analysis / USA Today)
    "Black Man’s Burden: Race and the Death Penalty in America," by Charles Ogletree. (81 OR. L. REV. 15 (2002)
    "Death by Discrimination - The Continuing Role of Race in Capital Cases." (Amnesty International April 24, 2003)
    "Smoke and Mirrors on Race and the Death Penalty," by Kenneth Scheidegger. (Criminal Justice Legal Foundation)
    "Based on What You Know: Race, Prejudgment, and the Death Penalty," by Bronson and Ross. (Public Opinion Pros 2007)
    Race and the Death Penalty in North Carolina 1993-1997. (Dr. Isaac Unah and Professor John Charles Boger 2001)
    "Texas Psychologist Speaks Out About His Testimony on Race and Crime," by Raju Chebium. (CNN June 9, 2000)
    "Execution By Quota?" by Stanley Rothman and Stephen Powers. (Smith College, The Public Interest, Summer 1994)
    Death Penalty Facts: The Death Penalty is Racially Biased. (Amnesty International USA 2002)
    Florida: "Capital Cases Task Force: Racial Bias Unclear," by Joe Becker. (St. Petersburg Times April 8, 2000)
    "Race and the Death Penalty." (ACLU February 26, 2003)
    "Discrimination, Death and Denial," by Stephen B. Bright. (Santa Clara Law Review, 1995)
    "A Legacy of Lynching: The Death Penalty as a Tool of Social Control," by William S. McFeely. (NACDL, Nov 1997)
    "There is No Precedent for Justice and Equality in Capital Punishment," by Rose Sanders. (In Motion Magazine)
    "Race and the Death Penalty." (American Bar Association Focus, Spring 1997)
    "Killing With Prejudice - Race and the Death Penalty." (Amnesty International, May 20, 1999)
    "Georgia Needs a Racial Justice Act," by Michael Mears. (GIDC August 1998)
    "The Death Penalty in the U. S. Continues to Reflect our Nation's Prejudice," by Michael Mears. (July 1999)
    Pennsylvania Supreme Court Committee on Racial and Gender Bias in the Justice System. (Chapter 6: Death Penalty 2003)
    "Race and the Death Penalty in Pennsylvania: Will Rendell Act? by David Lindorff. (Counterpunch March 8, 2003)

    Women and the Death Penalty

    "Death Penalty for Female Offenders January 1, 1973 - December 31, 2005" by Victor L. Strieb.
    Comprehensive and authoritative work by Victor L. Streib, Professor of Law at Ohio Northern University, available only in electronic format. Number of executions of female offenders in the 20th century and death sentences since 1973; Characteristics by age, race, sex, and victim of current death row; Female death sentences imposed since 1973 by name, date, state, and current status; Very short case summaries of current female death row inmates by state. (Reposted by Death Penalty Information Center and updated January 10, 2006)

    "Professor Streib Studies Women on Death Row," by Mike Wilder. (Times-News February 16, 2008)

    News article spotlighting the academic efforts of Professor Victor streib relating to women on death row.

    Women and the Death Penalty: Brief Facts and Figures (DPIC)

    Except for a large photo of Sister Helen Prejean and poster child Karla Faye Tucker in Texas, a repeat of the information from Victor L. Streib, Professor of Law at Ohio Northern University, listing women on death row and women executed.

    Why Women Aren't Executed: Gender Bias and the Death Penalty (ABA Fall 1996)

    American Bar Association publication of "Human Rights," Fall 1996 by Thad Rueter, commenting upon the obvious gender bias of death sentences, with women more likely to receive mercy, clemency, and commutation.

    "Mothers Who Think: Sexism and the Death Chamber," by Cathy Young. (Salon.Com May 4, 2000)

    "We are consistently more likely to seek mitigating circumstances for women's heinous deeds, to see female criminals as disturbed or victimized rather than evil. The thought of a woman in the death chamber makes people cringe."

    Capital Punishment U.K.: The Female Hanged.

    Case summaries of the 38 women hanged in Britain for murder since 1868.

    American Female Executions 1900 -2003. (Capital Punishment U.S.A.)

    Listing of the 47 women executed in the United states since 1900, by age, race, state, date of execution, and method of execution. (short summaries of most recent cases)

    Female Hangings 1632-1900. (Capital Punishment U.S.A.)

    Listing of the women executed in the United states before 1900.

    Dead Women Waiting: Who's Who on Death Row," by Sam Howe Verhovek (New York Times, February 8, 1998)

    Short news article on female death row inmates, with photos of 12 from around the country.

    "Fighting Demons on Death Row," by Kathie Doby (Salon Magazine)

    The story of Andrea Hicks Jackson on Florida Death Row. (Salon Magazine, December 1995)

    The Case of Mary Surratt, first woman executed in the United States.

    The life story of Mary Surratt and her involvement in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Compiled from the research of James O. Hall, published and copyrighted by the Surratt Society of Clinton, Maryland.

    10 Women Executed In U.S. Since 1976.

    Short news article on women executed in the United States since the reinstatement of capital punishment in 1976. (with photos of Wuornos, Harris, Beets, and Tucker)

    "Gendering the Death Penalty: Countering Sex Bias in a Masculine Sanctuary," by Victor L. Strieb. (Ohio State Law Journal 2002)

    "Much more significant, however, is the unique lens for examining the death penalty that is provided by a sex bias analysis. Professor Streib concludes that this perspective unmasks the system’s crime-fighting rhetoric to reveal a macho refuge that masculinizes all who enter therein."

    "Death Penalty for Lesbians," by Victor L. Strieb.

    How does a suspect's lesbianism affect whether she is charged for a capital offense, actually sentenced to death, or finally executed? With complete listing of all females sentenced to death since 1973. National Journal of Sexual Orientation Law, Volume 1, Issue 1.

    "Death Row Has Its Own Gender Gap," by Scott Baldauf. (Christian Science Monitor January 23, 1998)

    "At the Mountain View prison unit in Texas, the highest point is not a mountain, but a guard tower, and the most famous person in town is someone most residents will never meet. She is Karla Faye Tucker."

    Commentary: "Searching for a Silver Lining in Death Penalty's Gender Bias, by Earl Ofari Hutchinson. (Pacific News Service Nov 29, 2004)

    "The execution of a woman in Texas, scheduled for Dec. 1, shows, in its relative rarity, longstanding notions of women as the inferior sex. But warped notions of male chivalry and female victimization as least offer some possibility that the state might learn to put compassion before bloodlust when it comes to capital punishment, the writer says."

    "Staying Alive: Executive Clemency, Equal Protection, and the Politics of Gender in Women’s Capital Cases," by Elizabeth Rapaport.

    Article from the Buffalo Criminal Law Review, Volume 4:967, by Elizabeth Rapaport, Professor of Law, University of New Mexico. "When a governor confronts the duty of deciding whether to allow a woman capital prisoner to be executed, he or she is additionally forced to navigate the politics of gender in the new age of formal sexual equality."

    "Is the Death Penalty Good for Women?" by Phyllis L. Crocker.

    Article from the Buffalo Criminal Law Review, Volume 4:917, by Phyllis L. Crocker, Associate Professor of Law, Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University. "In this essay, I suggest a different and particularly feminist reason for reexamining, and rejecting, the death penalty. The death penalty perverts society’s response to the tragedy of a woman being raped and murdered by relying on a form of racism that is gendered in nature and by making the horrific nature of the crime of rape-murder a more important consideration in determining punishment than the individual characteristics of the person who committed it."

    "Women on Death Row: Blanche Moore," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)

    "Women on Death Row: Brittany Holberg," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Carlette Parker," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Cathy Lynn Henderson," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Christina S. Walters," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Erica Sheppard," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Frances Elaine Newton," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Kenisha Berry," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Kimberly McCarthy," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Linda Carty," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)
    "Women on Death Row: Suzanne Basso," by Charles Montaldo. (About.Com)

    Costs and Economics of the Death Penalty

    The Costs of LWOP Versus the Death Penalty. (Justice For All)
    Capital Punishment and its Cost. (Wesley Lowe)
    "Millions Misspent: What Politicians Don't Say," by Richard C. Dieter. (DPIC Revised Fall 1994)
    Financial Facts Against the Death Penalty. (DPIC)
    "The Economics of Capital Punishment," by Phil Porter.
    "Comparison of Capital Punishment Costs in Texas and Connecticut," by Sandra N. Bragg, Legislative Fellow.
    "A Strange Investment for a Capitalist Country," by Robert Sherrill. (The Nation January 8, 2001)
    "The Case Against the Death Penalty: Financial Costs," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (July 1992)
    Millions To Kill -- Pennies To Heal. (National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty)
    "The High Costs of the Death Penalty." (American Civil Liberties Union Capital Punishment Project 2002)
    "An Economic Analysis of the Death Penalty," by Martin Kasten. (Undergraduate Journal of Economics 1996)
    Policy Debate: "Is the Death Penalty an Efficient Crime Deterrent?" from Economics Resource Center.
    Capital Punishment - The Costs Of Capital Punishment. (Law Library - American Law and Legal Information)
    "Should Condemned Prisoners Receive Organ Transplants?" from About.Com.
    "The Next Time Someone Says the Death Penalty Costs More Than Life in Prison, Show Them This Article," by Gary D. Beatty. (2001) (Inactive Link)

    Deterrence and Incapacitation

    Articles on Death Penalty Deterrence.
    Links and summaries / abstracts of articles and studies on the deterrent effect of capital punishment. From the Criminal Justice Legal Foundation.

    "Does Capital Punishment Have a Deterrent Effect?" (Emory University Department of Economics January 2001)

    Scholarly research paper from economics professors at Emory University, Hashem Dezhbakhsh, Paul Rubin, and Joanna Mehlhop Sheperd, suggesting that the death penalty has a strong deterrent effect. "An increase in any of the three probabilities - arrest, sentencing, or execution - tends to reduce the crime rate. In particular, each execution results, on average, in 18 fewer murders-with a margin of error of plus and minus 10. Tests show that results are not driven by “tough” sentencing laws." Unlike many similar studies, this research is based mainly upon new data from post-1976 information.

    "Pardons, Executions, and Homicide." (University of Colorado at Denver October 2001)

    Scholarly research paper from economics professors at the University of Colorado at Denver, H. Naci Mocan and R. Kaj Gittings, suggesting that the death penalty has a deterrent effect. The paper uses as a dataset over 6,000 death sentences handed down from 1977 to 1997 in the United States. "We find a significant relationship between the execution and pardon rates and the rate of homicide. Each additional execution decreases homicides by 5 to 6, while three additional pardons generate one to 1.5 additional homicides."

    "The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death," by Professor Isaac Ehrlich June 1975)
    "The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment: A Question of Life and Death," by Professor Isaac Ehrlich June 1975)

    Scholarly article from University of Chicago Professor Isaac Erlich, finding a clear deterrence effect of the death penalty. (The American Economic Review, Volume 65, Issue 3, June 1975, Pages 397-417.)

    "Life v. Death: Who Should Capital Punishment Marginally Deter? by Charles N. W. Keckler. (2006)

    Scholarly article from Charles N. W. Keckler, University of New Mexico, finding a clear deterrent in the death penalty for those who murder and do not fear prison. "In different ways, gangland figures, serial killers, and terrorists all make killing their “business”; it is therefore sensible, as well as singularly appropriate, to selectively focus the use of capital punishment on raising the price of their crimes." (2 J. Law, Economics & Policy 101-161)

    "Execution Moratoriums, Commutations and Deterrence: The Case of Illinois," by Dale O. Cloninger & Roberto Marchesini. (2006)

    Abstract of Paper by Dale O. Cloninger & Roberto Marchesini, University of Houston-Clear Lake. "In January 2003 just prior to leaving office, the Governor commuted the death sentences of all of those who then occupied death row. It is found that these actions are coincident with the increased risk of homicide incurred by the residents of Illinois over the 48 month post-event period for which data were available. The increased risk produced an estimated 150 additional homicides during the post-event period. " (Applied Economics, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 967-973 (May 20, 2006)

    "State Executions, Deterrence, and the Incidence of Murder," by Paul R. Zimmerman. (2004)

    Scholarly article by Paul R. Zimmerman, U.S. Federal Trade Commission - Bureau of Economics. "Correcting for simultaneity, the estimates imply that a state execution deters approximately fourteen murders per year on average. Finally, the results also suggest that the announcement effect of capital punishment, as opposed to the existence of a death penalty provision, is the mechanism actually driving the deterrent effect associated with state executions." (Journal of Applied Economics, Vol. VII, No. I (May 2004), 163-193).

    "Murders of Passion, Execution Delays, and the Deterrence of Capital Punishment," by Joanna M. Shepherd. (2004)

    Scholarly article by Joanna M. Shepherd, Clemson University. "Each execution results in, on average, three fewer murders. In addition, capital punishment deters murders previously believed to be undeterrable: crimes of passion and murders by intimates. Moreover, murders of both black and white victims decrease after executions." (Journal of Legal Studies, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 283-322 (June 2004)

    "Does Capital Punishment Have a Deterrent Effect?" (Emory University Department of Economics January 2001)

    Scholarly research paper from economics professors at Emory University, Hashem Dezhbakhsh, Paul Rubin, and Joanna Mehlhop Sheperd, suggesting that the death penalty has a strong deterrent effect. "An increase in any of the three probabilities - arrest, sentencing, or execution - tends to reduce the crime rate. In particular, each execution results, on average, in 18 fewer murders-with a margin of error of plus and minus 10. Tests show that results are not driven by “tough” sentencing laws." Unlike many similar studies, this research is based mainly upon new data from post-1976 information. (Inactive link)

    "Reply to Donohue and Wolfers on the Death Penalty and Deterrence," by Paul H. Rubin. (Economists Voice April 2004) "Reply: The Death Penalty Once More," by Paul H. Rubin. (Economists Voice April 2006)

    Replies from Economist Paul H. Rubin after criticism from economists John J. Donohue and Justin Wolfers.

    "Getting Off Death Row: Commuted Sentences and the Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment," by H. Naci Mocan & R. Kaj Gittings. (2003)

    Scholarly article by H. Naci Mocan & R. Kaj Gittings, University of Colorado at Denver. "We find statistically significant relationships between homicide and executions, commutations and removals. Specifically, each additional execution (commutation) reduces (increases) homicides by about 5, while an additional removal from death row generates about one additional murder." (Journal of Law and Economics, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 453-478 (October 2003)

    "The Death Penalty Deters Crime and Saves Lives," by David B. Muhlhausen. (August 28, 2007)

    Testimony delivered on June 27, 2007, before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Civil Rights, and Property Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary of the United States Senate from David Muhlhausen, a Senior Policy Analyst in the Center for Data Analysis at The Heritage Foundation.

    "Estimates of the Deterrent Effect of Alternative Execution Methods in the United States: 1978-2000," by Paul R. Zimmerman. (2006)

    Abstract of Paper by Paul R. Zimmerman, U.S. Federal Trade Commission - Bureau of Economics. "Using a panel of state-level data over the years 1978-2000, this paper examines whether the method by which death penalty states conduct their executions affects the per-capita incidence of murder in a differential manner." (American Journal of Economics and Sociology, vol. 65, no. 4, p. 909 (Oct. 2006)

    "Uses and Abuses of Empirical Evidence in the Death Penalty Debate," by Donohue and Wolfers. (Stanford Law Review January 9, 2006)

    "Our aim in this Article is to provide a thorough assessment of the statistical evidence on this important public policy issue and to understand better the conflicting evidence. Our key insight is that the death penalty—at least as it has been implemented in the United States since Gregg ended the moratorium on executions—is applied so rarely that the number of homicides it can plausibly have caused or deterred cannot be reliably disentangled from the large year-toyear changes in the homicide rate caused by other factors." By John J. Donohue and Justin Wolfers. (Stanford Law Review January 9, 2006)

    "Self-Execution, Capital Punishment, and the Economics of Murder: Analysis of UK Statistics," by Samuel Cameron. (October 2001)

    Study using UK statistics suggesting that suicide by murder suspects is not influenced by the probability of execution, and greatly dominates the risk of death at the hands of the state. From the American Journal of Economics and Sociology, October 2001

    "Capital Punishment and the Deterrence Debate," by Amanda Geller, Jeffrey Fagan and Franklin Zimring. (Columbia University 2007)

    Spring 2007 anti-deterrence article from the Institute for Social and Economic Reasearch and Policy (ISERP) at Columbia University.

    "Does Death Penalty Save Lives? A New Debate," by Adam Liptak. (NYTimes November 18, 2007)

    Incapacitation and Deterrent Effects of the Death Penalty. (Justice For All)
    The Deterrent Effect of Capital Punishment. (Wesley Lowe)
    "The Death Penalty Deterrence Myth: No Solid Evidence That Killing Stops The Killing," by Cassandra Stubbs. (Huffington Post June 18, 2007)
    "Debunking the Death Penalty Deterrence Myth," by John Holdridge and Cassandra Stubbs. (Huffington Post January 8, 2008)
    "Does Capital Punishment Deter Crime?" by Jay Johansen. (1998)
    "Capital Punishment Saves Lives." (Southern Economic Journal, July 1985)
    "Does Punishment Deter?" (National Center for Polcy Analysis August 17, 1998)
    "Deterrence and the Death Penalty: The Views of the Experts." (Radelet & Akers 1996).
    "Facts" About Deterrence and the Death Penalty. (DPIC)
    "The Case Against the Death Penalty: Deterrence," by Hugo Adam Bedau. (July 1992)
    "The Death Penalty: An Ineffective Deterrent," by John H. Morrison. (October 29, 1993 MIT)
    Deterrence: Fact or Fiction? (National Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty)
    Deterrence: Death Penalty Information - High School Curriculum. (Michigan State Univ)
    "Does the Death Penalty Really Deter Criminals? Statistics Seem to Prove Otherwise," by Sabina Imanbekova. (Utah Daily June 25, 2007)
    "Purposes of the Death Penalty." (American Bar Association Focus, Spring 1997)
    "The Death Penalty Myth: Deterrence." (SF Chronicle Opinion September 27, 2000)
    "How Have Homicide Rates Been Affected by California's Death Penalty?" by Godfrey and Schiraldi. (1995)
    Guest Comment: "Don't Know Much About Calculus," by William Tucker. (National Review September 22, 2000)
    Accuracy In Media Report: "Fewer Executions, More Murders." (August A 2000)
    "Considering Life Without Possibility of Parole or Release," by Laura Magnani. (Peacework Magazine 1999)
    Listing of States With / Without Life Without Parole Option in Capital Cases. (DPIC)
    "Refereeing the Death Penalty: LWOP is Not Worse than Death," by Barry Farber. (NewsMax.Com June 27, 2000)
    "Once a Murderer . . ." (ProDeathPenalty.Com)
    Trial Nears for Texas Death Row Inmate Charged with Killing Fellow Prisoner. (Corpus Christi Online, October 26, 1998)
    Man Serving Life Convicted of Killing Inmate, Now on Death Row. (AP July 17, 2004)
    Thomas Eugene Creech, Idaho Death Sentence Commuted to Life in 1974, Kills Inmate, Back on Idaho Death Row.
    "Mississippi Death Row Inmate Donald Leroy Evans Stabbed to Death by Fellow Inmate." (Amarillo.Net/AP, January 5, 1999)
    N.C. Death Row Inmate, Tommy Noell: Sentence Commuted, Paroled, and Kills Again. (WRAL Nov. 7, 1998)
    Texas Death Row Inmate Stabbed 54 Times. (Amarillo Globe-News, November 5, 1998)
    "Dead Run," by Joe Jackson and William E. Burke, Jr., a book on America's only mass escape from Death Row.
    "Murders That Could Have Been Averted By Capital Punishment." (The New American August 30, 1990)
    "Texas Death Row Inmate Found in Louisiana, Drunk and Talking on Pay Phone." (Kandi's World AP November 7, 2005)
    Garner v. Jones (March 28, 2000) Serving Life, Escaped, Murdered Again, Sentenced to Second Life.
    "TV Producer Held Hostage by New York Prison Inmate." (ABCNews October 11, 2000)
    "Death Row Inmate Christa Pike Convicted of Attacking Fellow Inmate." (PrisonTalk July 1, 2004)
    "The George Motchan Story," - Killed in 1975 by an Escaped Inmate in N.Y. (CorrectionHistory.Org 1995)

    After Release from Death Row

    The Life After Exoneration Program!
    The Life After Exoneration Program's mission is to address the injustice of wrongful conviction and incarceration by assisting exonerees and their family members in re-building their lives on the outside, by working to secure their physical, spiritual, psychological, social and economic well being.

    "Life After Death Row," by Sara Rimer. (NYTimes Magazine December 10, 2000)

    Summaries of the cases and life after exoneration of Rolando Cruz (Illinois), Kirk Bloodsworth (Maryland), Earl Washington (Virginia), James Richardson (Florida), Ronald Williamson (Oklahoma), and Walter McMillian (Alabama).

    "Sonia Jacobs: From Death Row to Rebirth." (CBSNews October 27, 2000)

    Short news article on the 1992 release of Sonia Jacobs from Florida Death Row after 16 years incarceration for a murder she did not commit.

    Robert Lee Massie, Death Penalty Poster Boy, Executed March 27, 2001 in California.

    Summary of the case of Robert Lee Massie, who served two separate stints on California Death Row, released on the first after his death sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. 11 years later, he was paroled, and within one year committed another capital murder as well as a string of other violent crimes.

    "Robert Lee Massie on Death Row - On Again, Off Again." (SFChronicle March 14, 2001)

    Very short summary of the case of Robert Lee Massie, on the eve of his execution.

    "Patterson Going Back To Prison For 30 Years." (CBS2 Chicago.Com August 15, 2007 )

    News article on Aaron Patterson, who served 17 years on death row before being pardoned by former Illinois Governor Ryan as he was leaving office on 2003. Patterson was sentenced to 30 years in prison for trading in guns and drugs following his pardon.

    "Life After Death Row: Three Men Speak After Finding Freedom From Death Row." (CBSNews March 5, 2001)

    News report reviewing the release and after lives of Earl Washington, Mike Graham, and Kirk Bloodsworth, three men on death row and later proved innocent and released.Carter.

    "Life After Death Row: Picking Up the Pieces After Being Wrongfully Convicted." (ABC 20/20 August 29, 2001)

    Summary of television news report on the life of Kirk Bloodsworth, wrongfully convicted of murdering a 9 year old girl and sent to Maryland death row, the proved innocent by DNA in 1993.

    "Life After Death Row: A Freed Man Goes to Burger King, Watches "Titanic" and Waits for Reality," by Mike Kataoka. (January 22, 1999)

    Riverside Press-Enterprise news article on the recent release of California inmate Lee Perry Farmer Jr., released after 18 years in prison, eight on death row.

    "Life after Death Row: A Needs-Based Analysis of Life Post-Exoneration," by Kimberly Cook and Saundra Westervelt. (November 14, 2007)
    "Life after Death Row: Coping Strategies of Death Row Exonerees," by Kimberly Cook and Saundra Westervelt. (November 14, 2007)

    Abstracts of papers presented for the American Society of Criminology.

    "Briton Looks to Life After Death Row," by Paul Kelbie. (The Observer December 23 2007.

    "Kenny Richey, the Briton who spent nearly 21 years on death row in the US for a crime he did not commit, may devote some of his new-found freedom to helping other victims of miscarriages of justice . . . Richey is expected to be released shortly after prosecutors in Ohio offered to accept a 'no contest' plea to attempted involuntary manslaughter, child endangering and breaking and entering."

    "Life After Death Row: The Odyssey of Rabbit, a.k.a. Robert Driscoll," by Malcolm Gay. (Riverfront Times February 23, 2005)

    News article on the release of Missouri Death Row prisoner Robert Driskell, convicted and sentenced to death row twice for murdering a prison guard.

    "Rebuilding a Life After Death Row." (London Times May 1, 2007)

    News article on the release of Florida Death Row prisoner Sunny Jacobs, convicted and sentenced to death row for the murder of two policemen, then released after 17 years.

    "Life After Death Row: Nicholas Yarris." (This Is Guernsey April 3, 2008)

    News article on the release of Pennsylvania Death Row prisoner Nicholas Yarris, convicted and sentenced to death row for the rape and murder of a woman, then released after 22 years following his exoneration by DNA evidence..

    "Can There be Life After Death Row?." (The Northern Echo May 29, 2006)

    "I really wanted to know for myself if he had walked off Death Row and out of prison, would he have killed again? she says. I thought I'll never know the answer to that question' but then I realised there was a group of people who could answer it. They weren't released from Death Row because they were innocent but because they happened to be in the right place at the right time."

    "Life After Death Row: Ray Krone," by Anna Bruce-Lockhart. (The UK Guardian April 3, 2008)

    News article on the release of Arizona Death Row prisoner Ray Krone, convicted and sentenced to death row for murder, then released after 10 years.

    "Freed Inmate Leroy Orange Discusses Tasting Life After Death," by Anna Bruce-Lockhart. (The Daily Northwestern February 14, 2003)

    News article on the release of Illinois Death Row prisoner Leroy Orange, convicted and sentenced to death row for murder, then released by the blanket commutation of Governor Ryan after 17 years.

    "For 110 Inmates Freed by DNA Tests, True Freedom Remains Elusive." (AP DPIC May 28, 2002)

    AP article on the difficulties after DNA "exoneration" and release from prison of 100 inmates, 11 of which served time on death row.

    "Life After Death Row," by Caitlin Lovinger. (New York Times August 22, 1999)

    News article with short summaries of the cases of death row's living alumni of the 1990's.

    N.C. Death Row Inmate, Tommy Noell: Sentence Commuted, Paroled, and Kills Again. (WRAL Nov. 7, 1998) (Inactive Link)

    Tommy Noell had his North Carolina death sentence commuted to life imprisonment in 1976, and was released after serving 14 years imprisonment. Five years after his release, Noell was convicted of Second Degree Murder and sentenced to life in prison a second time. This is a TV report from WRAL in Raleigh, North Carolina. (November 7, 1998) (Inactive Link)

    Life after Death Row for N.C. Inmate Ed McKenna, now in Minimum Security. (WRAL November 19, 1998)(Inactive Link)

    After being sentenced to death in the 1970's for murdering a Raleigh policeman, North Carolina's death penalty statute was ruled unconstitutional and Ed McKenna was released from death row and now serves his time in a minimum security prison. He is eligible for parole later this year. (inactive link)

    "Former Death Row Inmate Given Second Life By Courts." (WRAL November 5, 1998)

    James Woodson had his death sentence reversed by the U.S. Supreme Court in the famous case of Woodson v. North Carolina, striking down the "automatic" sentence under North Carolina law in 1976. Since his release, he has been seen more often in church than on the streets. (inactive link)

    "Case That Revived Death Penalty Ended Ironically," by James Kimberly. (Houston Chronicle February 3, 2001)

    It was the U.S. Supreme Court's 1976 ruling in Jurek v. Texas that affirmed the state's revised capital murder statute and cleared the way for Texas to become the nation's most prodigious executioner. But he was never executed. Instead, his conviction and sentence was later reversed on appeal. On retrial, a plea agreement was reached for life imprisonment.

    Execution by Consent / Waiver of Appeals

    "Give Me Death; Rise of ‘Volunteer’ Executions May Mean Death Isn’t Worst Punishment," by Bryan Robinson. (ABCNews January 7, 2003)
    "Prisoner-Assisted Homicide -- More Volunteer Executions Loom." (Amnesty International USA 2007)
    "Killing the Willing: “Volunteers,” Suicide and Competency," by John H. Blume. (Cornell Law School Rsearch Paper Series 2004)
    "The Rush to the Death Chamber," by Robert Anthony Phillips. (Christian Science Monitor May 11, 2001)
    "Some Prisoners Willingly Accept Their Executions," by Calvin Woodward. (AP/Amarillo.Com May 10, 2001)
    "Volunteering to Die: How Do you Defend a Client," by Harriet Ryan. (CourtTV November 3, 1999)
    "The Voluntary Death Penalty." (Amnesty International USA 2008)
    "Michael Ross: Why a Killer Offers to Die," by Martha Elliott. (Connecticut Law Tribune, April 29, 1996)
    "Using Execution as Public Suicide," by David Rickard. (Log Cabin Democrat, March 14, 1999)
    Death Row Prisoner Waives Appeals, Changes Mind, Then Dies of Natural Causes. (Las Vegas Review, July 27, 1998)
    "Condemned Prisoners Opting To Die," by Richard Willing. (USA Today, February 1, 1999)

    Victim's Families

    MurderVictims.Com.
    A victims resource from "Justice For All," serving as a memorial to the many innocent victims of violent crime and a source for murder statistics, news items, discussion and information. Places the focus back on the victim instead of the perpetrator. Victim survivors can come here to find help, ask questions, give and get advice.

    "The Death Penalty and the Victim’s Family," by Brandon Crunkilton and Jim Rogowski.

    A PowerPoint presentation with summaries of Victim Impact Statements and Execution Witness statutes in various states and specific examples of victims. From Murder Victim's Familes for Human Rights.

    "Do Executions Bring Justice? The Relatives of Murder Victims Disagree on the Death Penalty," by Renny Cushing. (NYTimes Sept 3, 2001)

    Short anti-death penalty article from Renny Cushing, Executive Director, Murder Victims Families for Reconciliation.

    "Victim Advocates Against the Death Penalty," by Andrew Rivas. (Family Life Respect Life 2006)

    Anti-death penalty essay from Andrew Rivas, the executive director of the Texas Catholic Conference. "If these men and women can overcome human hatred and bring a gospel of mercy and love to the world, how can we claim a right to demand the death of a killer to “honor the victim” or to “win justice” for a victim’s family? To do so can dishonor the lives of all involved, making us complicit in perpetuating violence rather than ending it."

    "Declaration of Life" Pledge in Opposition to Death Penalty.

    Pledge of the "Declaration of Life" movement, started by Sister Camille D'Arienzo from Brooklyn during the 1994 New York governor's race, when Cuomo was defeated by pro-death penalty candidate George Pataki. (I do not want any person accused of killing me to face the death penalty).

    "The Impact of Capital Punishment On Families of Defendants And Murder Victims’ Family Members," by Rachel King.

    "While I was predisposed to oppose capital punishment before I began this project, seeing how the process made the families suffer turned my intellectual opposition into a calling to work to end the practice." (292 Judicature Volume 89, Number 5 March-April 2006)

    Vengence and Closure for the Victims of Murder.

    US News & World Reports 1997 Cover Story: "The Place for Vengeance." An examination of whether comfort and closure for the grieving families of murder victims is found by the execution of the murderer. (Reposted by ProDeathPenalty.Com)

    "Death Penalty Foes, Victims Themselves, Plead Case," by Gary Rotstein. (Pittsburg Post August 10, 2000)

    Short news article on the local appearance of anti-death penalty group "Journey of Hope," which includes family members of murder victims. (Written more like a press release for the organization than a news piece)

    Murder Victim Families for Reconciliation.

    Virginia support group for murder victims families, providing information about the needs and concerns of victims' families who are opposed to the death penalty in all situations.

    "Does the Death Penalty Deliver Solace?" by Barbara A. Melville. (Skidmore College Scope Winter 2004)

    "A small but intense national conference at Skidmore last fall, titled “The Impact of the Death Penalty on Victims’ Families,” sought answers in the diverse collective wisdom of some fifty people who daily wrestle with that question. Springing from the research and personal passions of David Karp and Beau Breslin, Skidmore sociology and government professors."

    "From a Homicide Survivor," by moltar. (Daily Kos December 4, 2004)

    Opinions that only a victim and survivors can tell - a blog entry from the brother of a homicide victim, murdered in 1995 in Florida.

    Murder Victims' Families For Human Rights.

    Murder Victims’ Families for Human Rights is an international, non-governmental organization of family members of victims of criminal murder, terrorist killings, state executions, extrajudicial assassinations, and “disappearances” working to oppose the death penalty from a human rights perspective.

    "Murder Victims' Family Members Promote End to Capital Punishment," by Brian Phillips. (Univ Concinnati News Record 10/1/03)

    News article on the appearance and presentation of Sam Reese Sheppard and George White. "Monday's presentation was part of a tour Sheppard, White and other speakers are conducting in coordination with "Journey of Hope... From Violence to Healing," an organization of murder victim family members. The group will spend two weeks in Ohio."

    "A Father's Urge to Forgive," by Bud Welch. (Time June 16, 1997)

    Short essay from father of Oklahoma City bombing victim, who has become outspoken critic of the death penalty.

    "Do Not Kill Timothy McVeigh," by Bud Welch. (A Globe of Witnesses)

    Short essay from father of Oklahoma City bombing victim, who has become outspoken critic of the death penalty.

    "My Daughter Julie Marie was the Light of My Life," by Bud Welch. (March 2001)

    Short anti-death penalty essay from father of 23 year old Oklahoma City bombing victim, Julie Marie Welch.

    "Oklahoma City Bombing: Two Fathers and Forgiveness, by Sandy McPherson Carrubba. (St. Anthony Messenger April 2000)

    "When the father of a bombing victim visited the father of a convicted bomber, an experience of peace and reconciliation resulted. The father from Oklahoma, Emmett E. “Bud” Welch, had buried his daughter, Julie-Marie, on a 1995 spring day. New York state resident William McVeigh is the father of the man sentenced to die for killing Julie-Marie and 167 others on April 19, 1995, in the Oklahoma City bombing of the Murrah Federal Building."

    "Victims and the Death Penalty." (American Bar Association Focus, Spring 1997)

    ABA Forum with John McAdams, James Acker, Leigh Bienen, and James Coleman, discussing the degree and emphasis that should be directed toward the victims as opposed to the defendants in the death penalty debate.

    The Rights of Murder Victims to Witness Executions. (CourtTV)

    Listing of the 13 states that currently (not up-to-date) allow victims' families to watch the execution of the murderer.

    An Argument Against Allowing the Families of Murder Victims to View Executions

    "An Argument Against Allowing the Families of Murder Victims to View Executions" by Michael Lawrence Goodwin (Journal of Family Law 1997)

    Leaven of Forgiveness by Penn. (Murder Victims' Families for Reconciliation)

    "Leaven of Forgiveness: Murder Victims' Families Stand Against the Death Penalty," an article on the organization Murder Victim Families for Reconciliation, spotlighting Bill Pelke (Indiana) and Marietta Jaeger (Michigan), both of whom had close family members murdered and testified against the death penalty, by Mary Sue Penn in Sojourners Online Magazine. (1995)

    "Victims' Rights - and Wrongs in the McVeigh Trial." by Bruce Shapiro. (Salon Magazine, June 13, 1997)

    Why the Prosecution did not let us hear from the relatives of the dead who did not want Timothy McVeigh to die?

    "Working with the Victim's Survivors in Death Penalty Cases," by Russell Stetler. (NACDL, June 1999)

    Primer for capital defense attorneys on contacting and winning over the families of the murder victim, provided by the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers.

    "The Right of Victims to be Heard." (National Victims Center)

    A discussion of the right of victims and families to be heard at sentencing, and at parole and clemency hearings, with a listing of rights state by state.

    Making Murder Victim Families a Party in New Jersey Capital Cases.

    July 1, 1996 news article By Maureen Castellano on New Jersey Supreme Court opinion making families of murder victims parties in capital cases for the first time, and allowing victim-impact evidence with restrictions.

    "My Sister's Candle."

    From the brother of a murder victim, with anti-death penalty commentary and links, mainly concentrating on the issue in Florida.

    The Shanda Shearer Website.

    Website dedicated to the memory of 12 year old Shanda Shearer, who was raped, tortured and murdered in Madison, Indiana in 1992 at the hands of 4 teenage girls. While originally charged with the death penalty, all plead guilty and were sentenced to long prison terms.

    The Cary Ann Medlin Website.

    Website dedicated to the life and memory of 8 year old Cary Ann Medlin, who in 1979 was kidnapped, raped and murdered at the hands of Robert Glen Coe in Tennessee. 21 years later Coe became the first person executed in Tennessee in 40 years.

    Throw Away the Keys: Justice for Mike.

    Short pages devoted to a murder/mansluaghter victim, Michael Williams.

    National Center for Victims of Crime: Resource Library.

    National organization devoted to victim asistance; Reports on Victim Impact statements, Crime Victims Compensation; Victim-Offender Reconciliation; Restorative Justice; Talk show Guidelines.

    Victim Law: Your Choice for Crime Victim Rights and Protections.

    The Justice System Explained; Tutorial; About Victim Rights; Glossary; Links to Victim Resources.

    "Apologies and Forgiveness," by Betty Wolfenden from Restitution, Inc.

    Specific and apparently sincere apologies offered by North Carolina Death Row inmate Bland Hill Jr., in order to show that he is a "changed person."

    Capital Defense Handbook for Defendants and their Families," by Claudia Whitman and Lawson Strickland. (2005)

    "This handbook provides fundamental information about how courts operate, trial procedures, general rules concerning capital murder cases, and the appeals process. It does not cover every rule or procedure concerning capital cases; however it is a place to start. The information provided will prepare you for what to expect." A jooint project of Grassroots Investigation Project (GRIP), Equal Justice Usa / Quixote Center, and the National Death Row Assistance Network of Cure (NDRAN).

    Witnesses to the Execution

    "Televising Executions: Overview of the Arguments," by Paul Leighton. (Paul's Justice Page)
    Excellent discussion of the issue with links to numerous articles and commentary from Dr. Paul Leighton, Assistant Professor in the Dept of Sociology, Anthropology & Criminology at Eastern Michigan University. includes "Fear and Loathing in an Age of Show Business: Reflections on Televised Executions," an excerpt from the book Criminal Justice Ethics, Paul Leighton & Jeffrey Reiman, Editors. (2000)

    "Crime Victims as Witnesses to an Execution: A National Protocol." (1999)

    A Report of First National Symposium on Crime Victims as Witnesses to an Execution, held on July 27, 1998, in Elizabethtown, Pennsylvania, Mary Achilles, Symposium Organizer and Editor. Published by the Corrections Committee of the National Organization for Victim Assistance.

    "Forget the Conventions, Just Televise the Executions," by Matthew Miller. (Minneapolis Star June 28, 2000)

    Short opinion article, approving of televised executions in order to show

    "Witness to an Execution." (PBS Online News Hour April 12, 2001)

    Transcript, with video, of interview with Attorney General John Ashcroft discussing the ability of Oklahoma City Bombing victim's families to witness the upcoming execution of Timothy McVeigh.

    Complete Audio of the Georgia Execution Tapes, from SoundPortraits.Org.

    Complete set of indexed audio recordings of 18 Georgia executions from 1983-1996. Recorded by the Georgia Department of Corrections and totaling more than 8 hours of audio.

    State by State policies regarding victim survivors witnessing executions. (ProDeathPenalty.Com)

    Rules and policies of each state allowing families of murder victims to winess the execution of murderer.

    The Rights of Murder Victims to Witness Executions. (CourtTV)

    Listing of the 13 states that currently allow victims' families to watch the execution of the murderer. (Out of date)

    An Argument Against Allowing the Families of Murder Victims to View Executions.

    "An Argument Against Allowing the Families of Murder Victims to View Executions" by Michael Lawrence Goodwin (Journal of Family Law 1997)

    Guatemala Broadcasts Execution of Two Kidnappers. (Fight the Death Penalty in the USA)

    AP article on the broadcast of lethal injection executions in Guatemala of two convicted kidnappers on June 30, 2000; Article on the proposed televised execution of Timothy McVeigh.

    "Capital Punishment on Trial," by Charles Elmore. (Salon Magazine, September 8, 1999)

    Article from reporter who witnessed Florida electric chair execution, concluding that the method is inhumane.

    "KQED Sues To Videotape Capital Punishment," by Michael Schwarz. (Journalism Ethics, March 1991)

    Short article/news release by executive producer and director of Current Affairs for KQED-TV in San Francisco, claiming that journalists have a right and obligation to serve as the public's witness.

    "Court to Weigh McVeigh Execution Webcast," by Lisa M Bowman. (CNET News April 18, 2001)

    "Numerous TV stations and even talk show host Phil Donahue have sued to record proceedings in the death chambers--for a live or later broadcast--but none so far has succeeded."

    "Who Has the Right to Watch McVeigh Die," by Jessica Reaves. (Time.Com April 25, 2001)

    Short news article discussing the broadcasting, public or closed-circuit, of McVeigh's upcoming execution.

    "We Believe in Death Penalty, But Shrink From Watching," by George J. Bryjak. (Catholic Reporter May 18, 2001)

    Editorial decrying that Americans favor the death penalty, but strongly oppose allowing executions to be made public by television or broadcast, and ridiculing those who believe the death penalty is a deterrent, since televised executions would enhance the deterrence.

    "Witnessing Execution a Matter of Duty, Choice," by Candace Rondeaux. (Washington Post December 10, 2006)

    Long news article detailing the witness requirements for executions under Virginia Law and the personal experiences of those that do.

    "The Last Public Execution in America," a book by Perry T. Ryan. (1992)

    Complete text of 26 chapter book written about the execution of Rainey Bethea on August 14, 1936, hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky, before a crowd of 20,000. The public outrage which followed resulted in the complete abolition of public executions in the United States. (with photo)

    "Mike Graczyk: Witness to the Execution." (Urban Grounds July 3, 2007)

    "Mike Graczyk, the correspondent in charge of the Houston bureau of the Associated Press, has been listed on the Media Witness list for 277 death row executions in the state of Texas."

    "Witness to an Execution," by Rick Halperin. (1998)

    First hand account of witnessing the execution of Texas Death Row inmate Frank McFarland on April 29, 1998.

    "Witness to an Execution," a pro-death penalty perspective by Richard W. Byrne. (December 9, 1999)

    First hand account from a witness to the 1999 execution of Gary Graham in Texas.

    "Witness to an Execution," by Bryan Rooney. (December 13, 2005)

    First hand account from a witness to the 2005 California execution of Crips co-founder Tookie Williams.

    "Making the Decision to Winess or Not to Witness an Execution." (Pennsylvania Office of the Victim Advocate)

    "The decision to witness or not to witness an execution is a very personal choice. OVA staff are available to provide with any assistance possible. If you choose to witness, you have the right to decide not to witness up until the moment of entering the death chamber viewing area."

    "States Go Hunting for Execution Witnesses." (Jackson Sun)

    "A grim and unanticipated problem is emerging from America's sharp rise in executions: It's getting harder to find enough civilians to act as witnesses."

    "Execution Day February 3rd, 1998." (The Death Penalty Perspective)

    What it was like to be a witness at the execution. First hand account of witnessing the execution of Texas Death Row inmate Karla Faye Tucker on February 3, 1998.

    "Oklahoma City Victims Mixed on T.V. Execution." (CBSNews February 11, 2001)

    Survivors and relatives of those who died in the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing had varied reactions to a suggestion by the convicted bomber that his execution be televised nationally.

    "Witness to Execution: Prison Director Charles McAtee Recalls Killers," by Michael Bruntz." (Lawrence Journal April 5, 2005 )

    Profile of Charles McAtee, director of the Kansas state penal institutions for 40 years, who supervised the 1965 executions of Richard Eugene Hickock and Perry Edward Smith, made notorious by the book, "In Cold Blood."

    "Witness to an Execution: I Watched James Elledge Die in Walla Walla," by Michael Hood. Seattle Weekly September 5, 2001)

    First hand account of the 2001 execution of murderer James Elledge in Washington.

    "Procedure 769: Witnesses to an Execution," A Film by Jaap van Howijk. (1995)

    "Procedure 769 looks at the [execution] event through the eyes of the witnesses. As Robert Alton Harris' brother Randall; Sharron Mankins, mother of one of Harris' victims; Daniel Vasquez, the warden at San Quentin; psychologist Craig Haney; reporter Wade Douglas and six others share their meticulous accounts

    "Witness to the Execution," by P.T. Staff. (Psychology Today May/June 1995)

    Reports on a study by Stanford University researchers who polled journalists who had witnessed a California state execution in 1992. "One hundred fifty journalists entered a California lottery in 1992, not forcash, but for front-row seats to the state's first execution since 1976. Eighteen won, but the thrill of victory was more than they bargained for. Witnessing the gas-chamber death of murderer Robert Alton Harris, from 15 to 20 feet away, was as traumatic as if they themselves had been under enemy fire, say Stanford University researchers."

    "150,000 Witness North Korea Execution." (Fox News November 27, 2007)

    A North Korean factory chief accused of making international phone calls was executed by a firing squad in a stadium before 150,000 spectators, a South Korean aid group reported. Six people were crushed to death and 34 others injured in an apparent stampede as they left the stadium, the aid group said. Most North Koreans are banned from communicating with the outside world, part of the regime's authoritarian policies.

    McVeigh / Nichols - Oklahoma City Bombing

    "Oklahoma City Bombing Trials." (CNN.Com Special Report)
    The Bombing; The Courtroom Cast; The McVeigh Trial; The Nichols Trial; Trial Transcripts; Video Almanac of the 1995 Bombing; Links;

    "After Oklahoma City, a Special Report." (PBS Online News Hour 2001)

    Links to articles and video on the Oklahoma City bombing, and the McVeigh trial and execution.

    Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum.

    The Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum was created to honor those who were killed, those who survived and those changed forever by the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City. The Memorial and Museum are dedicated to educating visitors about the impact of violence, informing about events surrounding the bombing, and inspiring hope and healing through lessons learned by those affected.

    "Oklahoma City Bombing," from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Brief online encyclopedia entry.

    Sentencing Hearing for Timothy McVeigh: Closing Arguments of the Prosecution. (1997)

    Transcript of the Government's Closing Argument asking for the death penalty in the McVeigh trial, delivered by Beth Wilkinson on June 12, 1997. (From "A Call For Reckoning: Religion and the Death Penalty" Conference held January 25, 2002.)

    Trial of Timothy McVeigh: Opening Statements and Closing Arguments. (1997)

    Transcript of the Government's Closing Argument asking for conviction in the McVeigh trial, delivered by Larry D. Mackey on May 29, 1997. Also, Opening statements from the Government and the Defense, as well as transcripts of the testimony of key witnesses.

    Court Transcript of Jury Verdict for a Death Sentence Returned Against Timothy McVeigh. (June 13, 1997)

    Official jury verdict reciting the special findings of aggravating and mitigating circumstances in the case of United States of America v. Timothy James McVeigh in Criminal Action No. 96-CR-68 in the United States District Court for the District of Colorado, in Denver, Colorado on June 13, 1997.

    "Victims' Rights - and Wrongs in the McVeigh Trial." by Bruce Shapiro. (Salon Magazine, June 13, 1997)

    Why the Prosecution did not let us hear from the relatives of the dead who did not want Timothy McVeigh to die?

    "Victims of the Murrah Building Bombing."

    Names, ages, and hometown of McVeigh's 168 murder victims.

    Yahoo Full Coverage News: McVeigh Execution / Oklahoma City Bombing.

    Links to news articles, magazine articles, audio/video, editorials and court documents from major media outlets on the execution of Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing.

    McVeigh: Sentenced to Die (PBS Online, June 13, 1997)

    "Interview With Timothy McVeigh," by Patrick Cole. (Time.Com March 30, 1996)
    "Martyr Without A Cause: The Sad, Destructive & Wasted Life Of Timothy McVeigh," by Jane Wanklin.
    The McVeigh Execution: Articles, Documents, and Video from CNN.Com.
    The Oklahoma City Bombing Case: The Trial of Timothy McVeigh. (CourtTV, 1998)
    Execution of an American Terrorist. (CourtTV)
    Oklahoma City Bombing Trial Report. (WashingtonPost.Com)
    "Nichols Request to Disqualify Entire DA's Office Denied." (CBSNews/AP February 13, 2001)
    "The McVeigh Effect: Eclipsing the Truth About Federal Death Row," by Earl Ofari Hutchinson. (Salon.Com May 9, 2001)
    "Where Are the Death Penalty Critics Today? by Walter Berns. (Wall Street Journal June 11, 2001)
    "McVeigh to Macbeth: The Difference Between Revenge, Retribution, and Right." (Reason Online July 2001)
    "McVeigh Proves Why We Need a Moratorium," by Tom Lowenstein. (American Prospect May 15, 2001)
    U.S.A. v. McVeigh: June 7, 2001 Order Denying Final Stay of Execution. (About.Com)
    U.S.A. v. McVeigh: "Notice of Intent to Forego Further Appeals," from The Smoking Gun. (2001)
    Timothy McVeigh Vigo County Death Certificate, from The Smoking Gun. (2001)
    "No Autopsy" Agreement between McVeigh and Vigo County Coroner, from The Smoking Gun. (2001)
    "A Father's Urge to Forgive," by Bud Welch. (Time June 16, 1997)
    "My Daughter Julie Marie Was the Light of My Life," by Bud Welch.
    "Do Not Kill Timothy McVeigh," by Bud Welch. (A Globe of Witnesses)
    "Oklahoma City Bombing: Two Fathers and Forgiveness, by Sandy McPherson Carrubba. (St. Anthony Messenger April 2000)
    "Covering Oklahoma City: A Look Back," by Janet S. Weaver. (Poynter Online April 16, 2004)

    Death Row Inmate Homepages / Memorials (485)

    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 350+ (Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 95+ (Magazine for the Wrongly Convicted)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 50+ (SMU)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 5+ (University of Alaska Anchorage)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 50+ (Yahoo)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 13+ (The Lamp of Hope Project)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 14+ (Repreive.org.uk)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 240+ (DeathRow-USA)
    Death Row Prisoner Web Pages. 32+ (Google)
    Scared Straight, Death Row. (The Wild Side)
    "The Condemned and Their Websites," by Julia Sheeres. (Wired News June 12, 2001)
    Prisoners: Pose Questions to and Get Answers from Death Row Inmates and Lifers. (Dark Sorrow)
    State Departments of Correction Homepages. (DPIC))
    State Departments of Correction Homepages. (Institute for Prison Ministries)
    State Departments of Correction Homepages. (The Corrections Connection)
    Cyberspace Inmates: Rehabilitation Through Correspondence. (33+)
    Inmate Classified. (200+ Penpals, Prison Links, DOC Web Pages)
    "The Management of Death-Sentenced Inmates," by George Lombardi, Richard D. Sluder, and Donald Wallace. (1996)
    Death Row Inmate Webring. (RingSurf)
    Project Damocles. (Death Row Pen-Pals)
    "Death-Row Inmates Don't Need Pity, Fame," by Jacquielynn Floyd. (Dallas Morning News April 25, 2008)

    Alabama: Nicholas Acklin
    Alabama: Randy Turpin Bell
    Alabama: T. Scott Cothren
    Alabama: Timothy Charles Davis
    Alabama: Trace Duncan
    Alabama: Carey Grayson
    Alabama: Timothy Charles Davis
    Alabama: Gary Drinkard
    Alabama: Artez Hammonds
    Alabama: Gary Hart
    Alabama: James Hubbard
    Alabama: James Johnson
    Alabama: Billy Kuenzel
    Alabama: Billy Kuenzel
    Alabama: Corey Maples
    Alabama: Earl McGahee Sr.
    Alabama: Wes Quick
    Alabama: William Dave Scott
    Alabama: George Sibley & Linda Lyon
    Alabama: Michael Thompson
    Alabama: Leroy White
    Alabama: Luther Williams
    Alabama: Leroy White
    Alabama: Harvey Windsor
    Alabama: Freddie Lee Wright
    Arizona: Frank Anderson
    Arizona: Michael Apelt
    Arizona: Michael Apelt
    Arizona: Rudi Apelt
    Arizona: Frank Atwood
    Arizona: Donald Beaty
    Arizona: Scott Clabourne
    Arizona: Robert Comer
    Arizona: Michael Correll
    Arizona: Gregory Dickens
    Arizona: Ernest Valencia Gonzales
    Arizona: Beau Greene (banned)
    Arizona: James Harrod
    Arizona: Mike Hedlund
    Arizona: Christopher Huertsel
    Arizona: David Hyde
    Arizona: Danny Lee Jones
    Arizona: Robert Glen Jones
    Arizona: George Kayer
    Arizona: Kenneth Laird
    Arizona: Chad Lee
    Arizona: Ernesto Martinez
    Arizona: Ramon Martinez Villareal
    Arizona: Efren Medina
    Arizona: Angel Medrano
    Arizona: Debra Jean Milke
    Arizona: Debra Jean Milke
    Arizona: Robert Moorman
    Arizona: Robert Murray
    Arizona: Roger Murray III
    Arizona: Scott Nordstrom
    Arizona: Kajornsak Prasertphong
    Arizona: Lemuel Prion
    Arizona: Charles Reinhardt
    Arizona: Richard Rossi
    Arizona: Jose Amaya Ruiz
    Arizona: Sean Running Eagle
    Arizona: John & Kara Sansing
    Arizona: Kyle Sharp
    Arizona: Martin Raul Soto-Fong
    Arizona: Anthony Spears
    Arizona: Clinton Spencer
    Arizona: Warren Summerlin
    Arizona: Teddy Washington
    Arkansas: Damien Echols
    California: Steven Ainsworth
    California: James Anderson
    California: Andre Alexander
    California: Rosie Alfaro
    California: Chay' Im Ben-Sholom / Marshall
    California: Dennis Mayfield Brewer
    California: John G. Brown
    California: Andre Burton
    California: Tracy Cain
    California: Dean Carter "Dead Man Talkin'"
    California: Steve Champion
    California: Kenneth Clair
    California: William Clark
    California: H. J. Coddington
    California: Scott Collins
    California: Kevin Cooper
    California: Kevin Cooper
    California: Glenn Cornwell
    California: Armenia Levi Cudjo Jr.
    California: Al Cunningham
    California: Richard Allen Davis
    California: Keith Doolin
    California: Robert Edwards
    California: Daniel Frederickson
    California: Jerry Frye
    California: Raymond Gurule
    California: Cedric Harrison
    California: James Heard
    California: Kionjozi Jones
    California: Randy Kraft
    California: Mustafa Lancaster
    California: Darrell Lomax
    California: James Marlow
    California: Jarvis Jay Masters
    California: Franklin Lynch
    California: Jarvis Jay Masters
    California: Charles Ng
    California: Scott Peterson
    California: Scott Peterson
    California: James Robinson
    California: Gregory Tate
    California: Tom Thompson
    California: Stanley Tookie Williams
    California: Tookie's Corner
    California: Terry Johnson
    California: Todd Joseph Rizzo
    California: Todd Joseph Rizzo
    California: Christopher Sattlewhite
    California: Ron Seaton
    California: Gregory Tate
    California: Richard Tully
    California: Melvin Turner
    California: Ward Weaver
    California: Andreau G. Wilson
    Connecticut: Michael Ross
    Delaware: Jack Outten
    Federal: Marvin Gabrion
    Federal: Juan Raul Garza
    Federal: David Paul Hammer (Death Row Speaks)
    Federal: David Paul Hammer
    Florida: Pressley Alston
    Florida: Guillermo Arbelaez
    Florida: Lancelot Armstrong
    Florida: Curtis Beasley Sr.
    Florida: Loran Cole
    Florida: Jimmy Coney
    Florida: Jason Derrick
    Florida: James Duckett
    Florida: William Elledge
    Florida: Crosley Green
    Florida: Paul Hill
    Florida: Rudolph Holton
    Florida: Rudolph Holton
    Florida: Rudolph Holton
    Florida: Emmanuel Johnson
    Florida: Amos King
    Florida: Anthony LaMarca
    Florida: Virginia Larzelere
    Florida: Virginia Larzelere
    Florida: Krishna Maharaj
    Florida: Juan Melendez
    Florida: Troy Merck
    Florida: Thomas Moore
    Florida: Julio Mora
    Florida: Anthony Mungin
    Florida: Joshua Nelson
    Florida: Faunce Pearce
    Florida: Grover "Bear" Reed
    Florida: Michayl Rivera
    Florida: Timothy Robinson
    Florida: Milo Rose
    Florida: Paul Scott
    Florida: Paul Scott
    Florida: Richard Shere
    Florida: Richard Shere
    Florida: Frank Elijah Smith
    Florida: Joseph Spaziano
    Florida: Gerald E. Stano
    Florida: William Thompson
    Florida: Terence Valentine
    Florida: Jeffrey Weaver
    Georgia: Jack Alderman
    Georgia: Kenneth Bright
    Georgia: Robert Butts
    Georgia: Kelly Gissendaner
    Georgia: Brandon Astor Jones
    Georgia: James Ringo McDaniel
    Georgia: William Mark Mize
    Georgia: Frederick Whatley
    Idaho: Mark Lankford
    Idaho: Mark Lankford
    Idaho: Mark Lankford
    Illinois: Donnie Bull
    Illinois: Ron Burt
    Illinois: Robert Carlos Casillas
    Illinois: Reginald Chapman
    Illinois: Tony Dameron
    Illinois: Dennis Emerson
    Illinois: Tony Enis
    Illinois: Mario Flores
    Illinois: David Harris
    Illinois: Demetrius Henderson
    Illinois: Stanley Howard
    Illinois: William Jones
    Illinois: Aldwin McNeal
    Illinois: Aldwin McNeal
    Illinois: Corey Moore
    Illinois: Ed Moore
    Illinois: Patrick Page
    Illinois: Aaron Patterson
    Illinois: Darrin Shatner
    Illinois: Sherrell Towns
    Illinois: Howard Wiley
    Illinois: Elton Williams
    Illinois: Bobby O. Williams
    Illinois: Martin Wooley
    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)
    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)
    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)
    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)
    Indiana: Keith Canaan
    Indiana: Perry S. Miller
    Indiana: Michael Dean Overstreet
    Indiana: Christopher Peterson (Obadyah Ben-Yisrayl)
    Indiana: Christopher Peterson (Obadyah Ben-Yisrayl)
    Indiana: Christopher Peterson (Obadyah Ben-Yisrayl)
    Indiana: Gregory Rouster (Gamba Mateen Rastafari)
    Indiana: Gregory Rouster (Gamba Mateen Rastafari)
    Indiana: Benny Saylor
    Indiana: Benny Saylor
    Kentucky: The State-Sponsored Killing of Harold McQueen
    Kentucky: Larry Osborne
    Kentucky: Kevin Stanford
    Kentucky: Kevin Stanford
    Louisiana: Elzie Ball
    Louisiana: Eugene Broxton
    Louisiana: Glen Seals
    Louisiana: Glen Seals
    Louisiana: John Thompson
    Louisiana: John Wille
    Mississippi: Anthony Joe Doss
    Mississippi: William Holly
    Mississippi: Howard Neal
    Missouri: Brian Kinder Bey
    Missouri: William Ted Boliek
    Missouri: James W. Chambers
    Missouri: Cecil Clayton
    Missouri: Ralph Davis
    Missouri: Carman Deck
    Missouri: Carman Deck
    Missouri: Ernest Johnson
    Missouri: William Robert Jones
    Missouri: Bruce Kilgore
    Missouri: Brian Kinder
    Missouri: David Leisure
    Missouri: Michael Owsley
    Missouri: Steven Parkus
    Missouri: Roy Ramsey
    Missouri: Roy Roberts
    Missouri: Steven Parkus
    Missouri: Lloyd Schlup
    Missouri: Robert Andrew Shafer
    Missouri: Christopher Simmons
    Missouri: Dennis Skillcorn
    Missouri: Joseph Whitfield
    Missouri: Jesse Lee Wise
    Missouri: Mose Young
    Montana: Daniel Johnson
    Nevada: Jimmy Kirksey
    Nevada: William Bryon Leonard
    Nevada: Kirstin Lobato
    Nevada: Kirstin Lobato
    Nevada: Tracy Petrocelli
    Nevada: Robert Marshall
    New Mexico: Ron Keine
    North Carolina: David Junior Brown
    North Carolina: Ronald Frye
    North Carolina: Michael Fullwood
    North Carolina: Terrance Taylor
    Ohio: Anthony Apanovich
    Ohio: Anthony Apanovich
    Ohio: Johnny William Byrd
    Ohio: John Grant Gallard
    Ohio: Brett Hartmann
    Ohio: W. Keith Henness
    Ohio: William Montgomery
    Ohio: Donald Duke Palmer
    Ohio: Kenny Richey
    Ohio: Kenny Richey
    Ohio: Kenny Richey
    Ohio: Kenny Richey
    Oklahoma: Wanda Jean Allen
    Oklahoma: Randall Eugene Cannon
    Oklahoma: Robert Eagle Clayton
    Oklahoma: Tyrone Peter Darks
    Oklahoma: Rocky Dodd
    Oklahoma: Jessie James Cummings
    Oklahoma: Don Hawkins
    Oklahoma: Loyd Lafevers
    Oklahoma: Scotty Moore
    Oklahoma: Paris Powell
    Oklahoma: Dan Juan Revilla
    Oklahoma: Walanzo Shabaka Robinson
    Oklahoma: Friends of Sean Sellers
    Oklahoma: Dion Smallwood
    Oregon: David Simonsen
    Pennsylvania: Ronald Gibson
    Pennsylvania: Jerard Bradley
    Pennsylvania: Free Mumia Abu-Jamal
    Pennsylvania: Mumia Abu-Jamal
    Pennsylvania: Mumia Trial and Appeals Transcripts)
    Pennsylvania: Justice 4 Police Officer Daniel Faulkner (Victim of Mumia Abu Jamal)
    Pennsylvania: Frank Chester
    Pennsylvania: Jermont Cox
    Pennsylvania: Jermont Cox
    Pennsylvania: Jimmy Dennis
    Pennsylvania: Robert Fisher
    Pennsylvania: Anthony Fletcher
    Pennsylvania: Roderick Johnson
    Pennsylvania: Matthew Kemp Sr.
    Pennsylvania: Thomas H. Kimbell
    Pennsylvania: Abdurrahman Sami Ali
    Pennsylvania: Reginald Sinclair Lewis
    Pennsylvania: Reginald Sinclair Lewis
    Pennsylvania: Sahara Rollins
    Pennsylvania: Ralph Stokes
    Pennsylvania: Ralph Stokes
    Pennsylvania: Ralph Stokes
    Pennsylvania: Melvin Troy
    Pennsylvania: Harold Wilson
    Pennsylvania: Nicholas Yarris
    Pennsylvania: Nicholas Yarris
    South Carolina: Richard Charles Johnson
    South Carolina: James Earl Reed
    Tennessee: James Lee Jones (Abu-Ali)
    Tennessee: Philip Workman
    Tennessee: Philip Workman
    Texas: John Wade Adams
    Texas: John Alba
    Texas: Franklin Alix
    Texas: James Allridge
    Texas: Odell Barnes, Jr.
    Texas: Odell Barnes, Jr.
    Texas: Odell Barnes, Jr.
    Texas: Mauro Barraza
    Texas: James Beathard (Gabi Uhl)
    Texas: Napoleon Beazley
    Texas: Allen Bridgers
    Texas: Allen Bridgers
    Texas: Carl Brooks
    Texas: Eugene Broxton
    Texas: Eugene Broxton
    Texas: Clifford Boggess (Gabi Uhl)
    Texas: Calvin Burdine
    Texas: Anibal Canales
    Texas: Domingo Cantu
    Texas: Edward Capetillo
    Texas: David Lynn Carpenter
    Texas: Karl Chamberlain
    Texas: Troy Clark
    Texas: Troy Clark
    Texas: Paul Colella
    Texas: Christopher Coleman
    Texas: Christopher Coleman
    Texas: Christopher Coleman
    Texas: George Cordova
    Texas: Robert Coulson
    Texas: Robert Coulson
    Texas: Brian E. Davis
    Texas: Brian E. Davis
    Texas: Brian E. Davis
    Texas: John Curtis Dewberry
    Texas: John Curtis Dewberry
    Texas: Leon Dorsey
    Texas: Martin A. Draughon
    Texas: Martin A. Draughon
    Texas: Richard Drinkard
    Texas: Emile Duhamel
    Texas: Henry Dunn
    Texas: Gary Etheridge
    Texas: Cleve W. Foster
    Texas: Kenneth Foster
    Texas: Robert Fratta
    Texas: Anthony Graves
    Texas: Norman Jerry Green
    Texas: Anthony Graves
    Texas: Anthony Graves
    Texas: Anthony Graves
    Texas: Randolph Greer
    Texas: Randy Halperin
    Texas: Gene Hathorn
    Texas: Cathy Henderson
    Texas: David Lee Herman
    Texas: Bobby Ray Hopkins
    Texas: Ron Howard
    Texas: Preston Hughes III
    Texas: Derrick Jackson
    Texas: Derrick Jackson
    Texas: Jimmy Jackson
    Texas: Jimmy Jackson
    Texas: Lonnie Johnson
    Texas: Jeremy Bryan Jones
    Texas: Alvin Kelly
    Texas: John William King
    Texas: Rickey Lynn Lewis
    Texas: Rickey Lynn Lewis
    Texas: Rickey Lynn Lewis
    Texas: Kim Lim & Anibal Rousseau
    Texas: Alexander Nartinez
    Texas: Miguel Angel Martinez
    Texas: Miguel Angel Martinez
    Texas: Miguel Angel Martinez
    Texas: Alexander Rey Martinez
    Texas: Farley C. Matchett
    Texas: Farley C. Matchett
    Texas: Michael L. McBrides
    Texas: James McWilliams
    Texas: Tont Medina
    Texas: Eric Lynn Moore
    Texas: Michael Patrick Moore
    Texas: Charles Nealy
    Texas: Charles Nealy
    Texas: Craig Ogan
    Texas: Scott Panetti
    Texas: Scott Panetti
    Texas: Kenny Parr
    Texas: John Paul Penry
    Texas: John Paul Penry
    Texas: John Paul Penry
    Texas: Pam Perillo
    Texas: Anthony Pierce
    Texas: Roy Lee Pippin
    Texas: Charles Raby
    Texas: Cedric Lamont Ransom
    Texas: Damon Jerome Richardson
    Texas: Granville Riddle
    Texas: Oswaldo Soriano Regaldo
    Texas: Granville Riddle
    Texas: Granville Riddle
    Texas: Larry Keith Robison
    Texas: Anibal Rousseau & Kim Lim
    Texas: Darlie Routier
    Texas: Darlie Routier
    Texas: James Session
    Texas: Willie Shannon
    Texas: Hank Skinner
    Texas: Hank Skinner
    Texas: Hank Skinner
    Texas: Paul Slater
    Texas: Max Soffar
    Texas: Max Soffar
    Texas: Pedro Sosa
    Texas: Gregory Summers
    Texas: Larry Swearingen
    Texas: Edgar Tamayo
    Texas: Michael Toney
    Texas: Son Tran
    Texas: Son Tran
    Texas: Karla Faye Tucker
    Texas: Karla Faye Tucker
    Texas: Karla Faye Tucker
    Texas: Manuel Vasquez
    Texas: Kevin M. Watts
    Texas: Bobby West
    Texas: Daryl Wheatfall
    Texas: Garcia Glenn White
    Texas: Bruce Williams
    Texas: Nanon Williams
    Texas: Nanon Williams
    Texas: Gregory Edward Wright
    Texas: Gregory Edward Wright
    Virginia: Derek Rocco Barnabei
    Virginia: Earl Bramblett
    Virginia: Kenny Wilson

    Karla Faye Tucker

    Wikipedia: Karla Faye Tucker.
    Online encyclopedia entry.

    "Karla Faye Tucker: Texas' Controversial Murderess," by Joseph Geringer. (The Crime Library)

    Five Chapter series on Karla Faye Tucker from The Crime Library - Notorious Murders / Women Who Kill. (1. Pick Axe, 2. Early Days, Dark Days, 3. Legal Tactics, Back and Forth, 4. Heaven in Spite of Hell, 5. An Eye for an Eye)

    A Memorial to Deborah Ruth Thornton.

    A Memorial to Deborah Ruth Thornton, one of the persons murdered by Karla Faye Tucker on June 13, 1983. Posted by her husband, Richard A. Thornton on MurderVictims.Com

    "Karla Faye Tucker: Why So Many Want to Save Her, " by S.C. Gwynne Austin. (Time.Com, January 19, 1998)

    Karla Faye Tucker is the nicest woman on Death Row. While she is removed from the person who committed her horrible crime, she most certainly will be the one to die for it.

    Karla Faye Tucker Challenges Texas Clemency Procedures. (CNN, January 20, 1998)

    CNN Interactive News Report on the constitutional challenge by Karla Faye Tucker to the Texas Clemency procedures on the eve of her execution.

    Larry King Live: Interview with Karla Faye Tucker (CNN January 14, 1998)

    Transcript of Larry King Live interview of Karla Faye Tucker on January 14, 1998, shortly before her execution in Texas.

    CNN News: Karla Faye Tucker (February 3, 1998)

    CNN Interactive News Reports: Karla Faye Tucker's final statement; Texas Gov. Bush's statement on Karla Faye Tucker; International Appeals to Spare Tucker; Governor, high court deny reprieves; Tucker admitted role in double murder; Relatives of Tucker, victim react; Related video, news stories, links.

    "Empathy - Karla Tucker and George Bush." (Ethical Canons and Scientific Inquiry)

    Short article describing the decision-making process of George Bush denying clemency to Karla Tucker.

    Texas v. Karla Faye Tucker, Habeas Corpus. (CourtTV)

    Article and full text of 150 page Writ of Habeas Corpus filed on behalf of Karla Faye Tucker.

    Victim's Brother Says "Death Penalty Solves Few Problems. (Evangelical Lutheran Church in America January 29, 1999)

    Short news article - Ron Carlson's sister, Deborah, was one of two people brutally murdered by Karla Faye Tucker and an accomplice. Carlson, a member of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA), later witnessed the execution of her murderer, and told a story of forgiveness to a national symposium on criminal justice in Baltimore January 22-24, 1999.

    A Memorial to Karla Faye Tucker Brown

    Post-Execution memorial tribute to Karla Faye Tucker, with news articles, letters, and opinions.

    BBC News Special Report: Karla Faye Tucker.

    Portrait of a Repentant Killer; A Crime that Shocked America; Governor Faces Death Row Dilemma; Tucker Speaks Out on Prime Time TV.

    "Clock Ticks for Death Row Woman, Karla Faye Tucker." (BBCNews February 2, 1998)

    Special report on the fate of Karla Faye Tucker, shortly before her execution.

    New York Times: Karla Faye Tucker.

    News about Karla Faye Tucker, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times 1992-2005.

    Texas: Karla Faye Tucker Homepage.

    Texas: Karla Faye Tucker Homepage.
    Texas: Karla Faye Tucker Homepage.

    Mumia Abu-Jamal

    Wikipedia: Mumia Abu Jamal.
    Online encyclopedia entry.

    Justice 4 Police Officer Daniel Faulkner (Victim of Mumia Abu Jamal)

    Website dedicated to the Philadelphia Police Officer murdered by Mumia Abu Jamal, the prolific "journalist" convicted and sentenced to death in 1982, who has mounted an aggressive web campaign of disinformation. Facts from the trial and appeal are provided to dispel myths created by that campaign.

    The Danny Faulkner Story. (Fraternal Order of Police)

    Links and FOP Press Releases on the murder of Officer Daniel Faulkner.

    Educators for Mumia Abu Jamal.

    WE EDUCATORS ARE UNITED IN SAYING NO TO JAMAL’S EXECUTION. We invite you to study this web site, explore the case and the issues – for Mumia’s sake and that of so many others on U.S. death row.

    Free Mumia Abu-Jamal Coalition (NYC)

    Links to Latest News, Legal Updates, Mumia's Columns. Also serving as the homepage for the International Concerned Family and Friends of Mumia Abu-Jamal.

    Mumia Abu-Jamal's Freedom Journal

    Updating the Campaign to Free Mumia: Activity Reports; Free Mumia News; Intn'l Solidarity; Legal Updates; Mumia's Columns.

    Partisan Defense Committee: Mumia Abu Jamal.

    "Time is running short. We must mobilize now to revive and expand the movement to make Mumia’s fight once again a rallying cry against racist “legal lynching,” against black oppression, against government repression."

    The Philadelphia Enquirer: Mumia Abu Jamal.

    Links to Philadelphia Enquirer news articles on Mumia Abu Jamal from 1981 to 1998.

    Mumia Abu-Jamal's Radio Broadcasts. (Prison Radio)

    Archived files of Mumia Abu Jamal's essays composed and read from his prison cell.

    "Paris Street for Mumia Abu-Jamal Sparks Trans-Atlantic Row," by Stefan Simons. (June 29, 2006)

    News article from Spiegel Online International. "A street outside Paris is causing an uproar across the Atlantic in Washington. It's named after controversial US death row inmate Mumia Abu-Jamal."

    Pennsylvania: Mumia Trial and Appeals Transcripts.

    "Mumia: Overturning of Death Sentence Falls Short of Full Justice." (Amnesty International December 19, 2001)
    "Celebrity Inmate Mumia Deserves New Sentencing Hearing." (Fox News March 27, 2008)
    "All Things Censored," by Mumia Abu-Jamal. (Seven Stories Press May 2000)
    "What's Mumia Got to Do With It? by Marc Cooper. (MotherJones Reality Check February 9, 2000)
    Mumia Abu-Jamal Death Row Homepage (Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty)
    "Mumia's Millions," by Joan Walsh. (Salon Magazine, July 10, 1999)
    "Court Grants Convicted Cop Killer Mumia New Hearing," by Kathy Matheson. (ABCNews March 27, 2008)

    Dead Man Walking / Sister Helen Prejean

    The Official Website of Sister Helen Prejean, CSJ
    Blog; News from S Helen; Did You Know?; Letters to S Helen; Press Clippings; a Prayer From S Helen; Related Links; Sisters of St. Joseph Ofmedaille Home Page; Contact Helen; Vocational Contact; Dear Governor Ryan; a Reflection; Calendar.

    Frontline: Angel on Death Row with Sister Helen Prejean.

    The real life cases from the movie "Dead Man Walking"; Interviews with Sister Helen Prejean and victims; Pros and Cons of the Death Penalty; Chronology of Capital Punishment. (From PBS series Frontline 1998)

    Wikipedia: Helen Prejean.

    Online encyclopedia entry.

    "Conversation with Sister Helen Prejean," by Marilyn Rodrigues. (Catholic Weekly August 17, 2003)

    "The death penalty is still in place in 38 of the 50 United States, but Sr Helen Prejean (pictured) firmly believes that she will see it abolished in her lifetime."

    News Articles on the Executions of Patrick Sonnier and Robert Lee Willie.

    Links to news articles on the Louisiana executions of Patrick Sonnier and Robert Lee Willie in 1984.

    "Choose Life," by Sister Helen Prejean. (YesMagazine Fall 2000)

    "Is It Time to Close the Prisons? Sister Helen Prejean is a Sister of St. Joseph of Medaille in New Orleans and author of the book 'Dead Man Walking.' This article was adapted with the author's permission from a speech she gave to the American Friends Service Committee Public Gathering, November 6, 1999."

    Sister Helen Prejean: Pen-Pal to the Condemned," by Gerard Baker.(Abeliene Reporter News November 22, 1997)

    "For the past five years, the campaigning nun with the taut literary style and the Cajun drawl has been pen-pals with prisoners on death row across the United States."

    "Busted: Sr. Helen Prejean," by Trish Muyco-Tobin. (2007)

    Interview article with the real-life nun behind Dead Man Walking about her newest book "The Death of Innocents." From BustedHalo.Com, an online magazine for spiritual seekers in their 20's and 30's.

    "On Death Row - Interview with Sister Helen Prejean," by Tim Robbins. (January 1996)

    "Sister Helen Prejean is leading a passionate campaign against the death penalty, asking the hard questions as no one has before. Now, her book about her experiences with inmates on death row has become the basis for the new movie Dead Man Walking."

    "Dead Men Walking Away From Justice," by Steve Weinberg. (CSMonitor December 28, 2004)

    Sister Helen Prejean tries again to stop the death penalty in America with the release of 'The Death of Innocents,' she tries to "catalyze public discourse that will end the death penalty."

    Death Penalty Discourse Network: Sister Helen Prejean.

    "Schedule of Sister Prejean, Audio, DVD, ITunes, Campaigns. "She travels extensively, giving, on average, 140 lectures a year . . . During those times she is not on the road, Sister Helen's work is based at the Death Penalty Discourse Network in New Orleans."

    "Nun on Fire: Ending Capital Punishment Will be the Great Cause of Our Time." (Pasadena Weekly February 22, 2007)

    "At 67, Sister Helen Prejean is still a woman on fire. On Friday, Prejean will arrive in Pasadena to lead All Saints Church's three-day Festival of Life 2007, a series of discussions and workshops dedicated to reform of the justice system."

    Sister Helen Prejean. Murder Victims Families for Human Rights.

    Biography and links to websites and book reviews by sister Helen Prejean from anti-death penalty group.

    "Sister Helen Prejean: The Real Woman Behind Dead Man Walking," by John Bookser Feister. (St. Anthony Messenger April 1996)

    Gushing article from catholic website. "A remarkable chain of events led her to become a Death Row counselor. Now Sister Helen's story is playing on movie screens throughout the world in one of the most acclaimed films of the year."

    The Right to Life: An Interview with Sister Helen Prejean," by Isabel Hilton. (2006)

    Text and audio of 2006 interview with Sister Helen Prejean, from OpenDemocracy.Net.

    "Questioning Capital Punishment with Sr. Helen Prejean" is a five session DVD study.

    "The Other Side of the Death Penalty, an Interview with Helen Prejean," by George M. Anderson. (America Magazine March 14, 2005)
    Journey of Hope's Favorite Sister Helen Prejean Sites.
    "The Sister of Mercy: Helen Prejean," by Katherine Butler. (January 11, 2005)
    "One Woman Talking:An Interview with Sister Helen Prejean, by John Dear. Fellowship June 2000)
    "Sister Helen, the Real Woman Behind Dead Man Walking," by John Feister. (St. Anthony Messenger April 1996)
    "Would Jesus Pull the Switch?" by Sister Helen Prejean. (Salt of the Earth Magazine 1997)
    "Sympathy for the Devil," by Marc Bruno. (Sister Helen Prejean and Dead Man Walking). (Salon Magazine)
    Dead Man Walking and Death Penalty Litigation by David George. (Court TV 1999)
    Webquest: Capital Punishment (Course outline from Aloyce Hudson, social studies instructor)
    "Death in Texas," by Sister Helen Prejean. (New York Times Review of Books January 13, 2005)
    "10 Questions For Helen Prejean," by Amanda Ripley. (February 14, 2005)

    Famous / Historical Death Penalty Trials

    Famous American Trials by Law Professor Doug Linder. (University of Missouri at Kansas City)
    Detailed recitation of the evidence, arguments, and verdicts in 37 famous historical trials, some involving death penalty issues, including: Salem Witchcraft Trials (1692); Dakota Conflict Trials (1862); Lincoln Conspiracy Trials (1865); Lizzie Borden Trial (1893); Leopold and Loeb Trial (1924); Scottsboro Boys Trials (1931-1937); Rosenbergs Trial (1951); Charles Manson Trial (1970-71); Okla City Bombing Trial (1997); Moussaoui 9/11 trial (2006).

    TruTV Crime Library: Criminal Minds and Methods.

    Detailed accounts of the crime, the evidence and arguments at trial, the verdict and appeals, in scores of famous historical trials, many involving the death penalty, including: Leopold and Loeb (1924); Sacco and Vanzetti (1920); Bruno Richard Hauptmann (1935); The Rosenbergs (1951); The Scottsboro Boys (1931-1937); Charles Starkweather (1958); Charles Manson (1970-71); Jeffrey MacDonald (1979); Ted Bundy (1978-80); John Wayne Gacy (1980); Richard Ramirez, The Night Stalker (1989). (some slanted anti-government commentary)

    "Capital Punishment 101: A 20th Century History," by J.J. Maloney. (Crime Magazine, February 8, 1999)

    Thorough article discussing capital punishment in the U.S. during the 20th century, summarizing the notorious trials of Sacco and Vanzetti, Bruno Hauptman, the Scottsboro Boys, the Rosenbergs, Caryl Chessman, and Karla Faye Tucker; Also outlines the rulings of the Warren and Renquist Supreme Courts.

    Famous Cases: Historically Noteworthy Executions. (CBS News)

    Very short summaries of noteworthy cases, including Sacco and Vanzetti, Bruno Hauptman, The Rosenbergs, Gary Gilmore, Ted Bundy, Karla Faye Tucker, Timothy McVeigh, Tookie Williams.

    "Defense's Opening Statement During Malvo Trial." (Washington Post November 13, 2003)

    Transcript of the opening statement by defense attorney Craig S. Cooley during the capital murder trial of Lee Boyd Malvo. This is from a preliminary transcript of court proceedings compiled by court reporters Alvis & Cheesebrew, Inc.

    "Defense's Closing Argument During Penalty Phase of Malvo Trial." (Washington Post December 22, 2003)

    Transcript of the closing argument by defense attorney Craig S. Cooley during the penalty phase in the capital murder trial of Lee Boyd Malvo. This is from a preliminary transcript of court proceedings compiled by court reporters Alvis & Cheesebrew, Inc.

    Top 25 Crimes of the Century from Time.Com.

    Excellent feature with articles and links on famous 20th century crimes, including the Lindberg Kidnapping, Richard Speck, Tate Murders, John Wayne Gacy, Ted Bundy, and Jeffrey Dahmer.

    The Greatest Trials of All Time. (CourtTV, 1998)

    Detailed accounts of famous historical trials, some involving the death penalty, including: The Scopes Monkey Trial (1925); Sacco and Vanzetti (1920); The Scottsboro Boys (1931-1937); The Court Martial of Lt. Calley (1971), with photos and real video from CourtTV.

    Oyez: U.S. Supreme Court Oral Arguments

    Oral arguments in notable United States Supreme Court cases from Jerry Goldman and the Oyez Project of Northwestern University. (Audio format)

    "The Fugitive" Case: Sam Sheppard Wrongful Imprisonment Trial. (Court TV 2000)

    Up to date reports on the Sam Sheppard murder conviction and appeal in the 1950's , as well as the unsuccessful civil trial brought by his son against the State of Ohio trying to clear his name in the 1990's.

    "Sam Reese Sheppard: The Civil Trial.

    Homepage of Sam Reese Shepard, the son of Dr. Sam Shepard, who was convicted of his wife's murder in 1954. This conviction was overturned in 1966 on the basis of prejudicial pretrial publicity. On retrial, Spehard was found not guilty. The case remains unsolved. Site also chronicles a later civil action brought by Shepard for false imprisonment, and his anti-death penalty efforts.

    "Case That Revived Death Penalty Ended Ironically," by James Kimberly. (Houston Chronicle February 3, 2001)

    It was the U.S. Supreme Court's 1976 ruling in Jurek v. Texas that affirmed the state's revised capital murder statute and cleared the way for Texas to become the nation's most prodigious executioner. But he was never executed. Instead, his conviction and sentence was later reversed on appeal. On retrial, a plea agreement was reached for life imprisonment.

    Witchcraft in Salem Village.

    A history of the infamous Salem Witch Trials of 1692.

    The Trial of the Unabomber, Theodore Kaczynski. (CourtTV, 1999)

    The Lindbergh Case: The Trial of the Century. (Hunterdon County Democrat, 1999)
    Richard Allen Davis: Jury Recommends Death in Klaas Murder. (CNN, August 5, 1996)
    Sam Reese Sheppard: The Civil Trial. (CUADP)
    Caryl Chessman, The Red-Light Bandit. (USC Information Services)
    Great Crimes and Trials: Caryl Chessman. (Crime and Investigation Network)
    "The Case of Sacco and Vanzetti," by Felix Frankfurter. (Atlantic Monthly, March 1927)

    Notorious Murderers, Serial Killers

    Serial Killers Exposed.
    TruTV Crime Library.
    Internet Crime Archives.
    Serial Killers and Mass Murderers, from About.Com.
    FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives.
    Cyber Sleuths True Crime Features.
    Gary Gilmore's Home on the Web.
    "Much Ado About Gary." (Time December 13, 1976)
    "Henry Lee Lucas," by Bonnie Bobit from Crime Magazine.
    "In Cold Blood: A Dishonest Book," by J.J. Maloney. (Perry Smith and Richard Hickock)
    "What We Learned from Ted Bundy," by Leilani Corpus. (March 1989)
    "Who was the Red-Light Bandit? (Caryl Chessman)" (Prison Policy Initiative)
    Jeffrey MacDonald Homepage.
    "Mind of a Killer: An Investigation of Serial Homicide.
    Encyclopedia of Serial Killers A - Z.
    Serial Killers. (Kari Sable Burns)
    Seize the Night. (carpenoctem.tv)
    Portraits of Serial Killers.
    All Serial Killers dot com.
    Wikipedia: Serial Killers

    Death Penalty Humor & Curiosity

    Dead Man Eating: Looking for a Killer Meal?
    Listing of executed prisoners in the U.S., with news reports of their last meal and final statements, with the "skinny" on the execution.

    Caskets on Parade.

    Caskets On Parade is the name of our little Dead Pool-type contest. The object of the game is to identify (up to) 75 notable individuals who will die during the contest year. Points are awarded for the age and uniqueness of selection of individual Victims of the Grim Reaper.

    "Web Site 'Handicaps' Executions," by Gene Collier. (Pittsburg Post-Gazette July 18, 2001)

    Daryl Cagle's Professional Cartoonists Index: The Death Penalty. (updated regularly)
    A Gallery of Anti-Death Penalty Cartoons from Artizans
    "Kids' New Rage: Executing Marv," by Michelle Delio. (Wired.Com August 10, 2000)
    "Death Row Marv Mocks Justice," by Michelle Malkin. (Cagle Post August 17, 2000)
    The Death Penalty: Cartoons and Humor from LA PEINE DE MORT.
    An "Electric Chair" Version of the Popular Word Game "Hangman," from Booga Hoollar.
    The Modern World Comics on the Death Penalty, by Tom Tomorrow. (Salon.Com February 14, 2000)
    The Last Word: A Collection of Final Statements.
    "Texas Death Row Peep Show, Proudly Listing Last Meals and Last Words," by Donna Ladd. (Salon.Com February 4, 2000)
    "We, on Death Row," from the Home Page of United Colors of Benetton.
    "Condemned to Sell Sweaters: Benetton Appoints Troubling Spokesmen," by Harriet Ryan. (CourtTV January 7, 1999)
    "Sears Pulls Benetton Clothing From Stores." (ProDeathPenalty.Com December 7, 1999)
    Amnesty International Press Release Supporting Benetton Ad Campaign. (January 10, 2000)
    "When Benetton Used Convicted Killers as Models, It Cost More Than it Bargained For," by Craig Offman. (Salon.Com April 17, 2000)
    "Why We're Fascinated by Death Row Cuisine," by Tony Karon. (Time.Com 2000)
    Deal-A-(Last)Meal: Grading the Last Meals of Recent Notorious Executed Murderers.
    Death Row Online: The First Interactive Electric Chair - You Be the Executioner.
    "Death Row Trivia" by Bonnie Bobit from Crime Magazine.
    "Last Words on Death Row." (CNN.Com from CourtTVNews December 31, 2007)
    The Coctail Hour. (Inviting you to the next execution in any state that we want to attend).
    "Political Suicide: Florida Lawmaker Suggests Crucifixion. (Goofball.Com January 12, 2000)
    Abolitionwear T-Shirts, Caps, Bumper Stickers from Citizens United for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.
    Pro-Death Penalty T-shirts from DPINFO.Com.
    "Death Row Dog Dies as Appeals Linger," by Robert Farley. (St. Petersburg Times October 26, 2001)
    "UK Death Row Dogs." (BBCNews November 20, 1998)

    Photos, Drawings, Music, Movies, & Art

    Photos of Allen Lee "Tiny" Davis in Electric Chair Following 1999 Florida Execution.
    (Appended to Supreme Court Dissenting Opinion of Justice Shaw in Provenzano v. Moore. (September 30, 1999)

    Photos of Allen Lee "Tiny" Davis in Electric Chair Following 1999 Florida Execution.
    Showcased as part of summary of the issues surrounding the use of the electric chair in Florida, by J. J. Maloney, from The Crime Encyclopedia. Following the execution, when the Florida Supreme Court ruled, yet again, that execution by electrocution is not unconstitutional, a dissenting justice attached three photographs of the execution to his dissent, and it became public record.

    Photos of Allen Lee "Tiny" Davis in Electric Chair Following 1999 Florida Execution.

    Showcased as part of anti-death penalty pages in Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty.

    Justice for All? Artists Reflect on the Death Penalty.

    The death penalty art show premiered in Austin at Gallery Lombardi from May 6-22, 2006. A smaller selection of the artworks was exhibited in the Texas Capitol Building March 12-18, 2007. The Austin Chronicle says "the show is nothing short of powerful. With photos of artwork.

    Methods of Execution. (Matt Robinson Appalachian State University .)

    Simple links to Death Penalty Information Center, but with excellent hanging, lynching, beheading, gas chamber, electric chair, firing squad, lethal injection gurney, Tiny Davis, Sadaam photos.

    "Legislator Yanks Execution Artwork in Texas Capitol," by Lianne Hart. (Los Angeles Times March 15, 2007)

    "I'm not an art critic or an art hater, but I can't think of any circumstance where hanging this type of art would be appropriate. It's offensive," Miles said. "It has no place at the Capitol."

    Death Penalty Drawings and Illustrations from News Art.

    Texas Death Row Photos by Ken Light.
    "Texas Death Row Photos Shock, Enlighten at Journalism School," by Julia Sommer. (October 14, 1997)
    Photo of the Last Public Execution in America. (In Owensboro, KY before a crowd of 20,000)
    "The Nooses Knot" (Gallery of gallows photos)
    Executions: In a Theater Near You, from The Smoking Gun. (2001)
    "Death Row, Aisle Seat," by Austin Sarat," (The American Prospect November 30, 2002)
    Official Website of "The Green Mile," starring Tom Hanks. (Warner Brothers 1999)
    Official Website of "The Hurricane," starring Denzl Washington. (Universal Studios 1999)
    Official Website of "The Life of David Gale," starring Kevin Spacey. (Universal Studios 2003)
    "At the Death House Door," a film by Steve James and Peter Gilbert. (2008) Reviews, plot summary and trailer from IFC.Com.
    "Dead Man Walking," starring Susan Sarandon. (1995) Reviews, plot summary and credits from Internet Movie Database.
    "The Executioner's Song," starring Tommy Lee Jones. (1992) Reviews, plot summary and credits from Internet Movie Database.
    "Last Dance," starring Sharon Stone. (1996) Reviews, plot summary and credits from Internet Movie Database.
    "The Chamber," starring Gene Hackman. (1996) Reviews, plot summary and credits from Internet Movie Database.
    Scott Langley's Documentary Death Penalty Photography Project.
    The Justice Project: Death Penalty in Pop Culture. (Movies, Books, Music, Arts, Radio, TV)
    Crime Films. (Crime Magazine)
    Books About the Death Penalty in Texas. (Gabi Uhl)
    "Dead Man Walking: The Opera Opens in San Francisco." (Salon.Com)
    Abolition Art (poems and collage) from Nebraskans Against the Death Penalty.
    Photos Depict Teen Life on Death Row," by Jacqueline Brill. (The Daily Tar Heel April 20, 2004)
    Arizona Death Row Inmate photos.
    Arizona Executed Inmate photos.
    Arizona Gas Chamber and Lethal Injection gurney photos.
    California Photos of Death Row, the Gas Chamber and Lethal Injection Table, San Quentin.
    California San Quentin Slideshow.
    Colorado Death Row Inmate photos.
    Delaware Death Row Inmate photos.
    Florida Death Row Inmate photos.
    Indiana Death Row Inmate photos. (Clark County Prosecuting Attorney)
    Indiana Executed Inmate photos. (Clark County Prosecuting Attorney)
    Kentucky Death Row Inmate Photos. (Kentucky DOC)
    Kentucky Death Row Inmate Photos. (Fayette County Commonwealth Attorney Ray Larsen)
    Louisiana: Photos of Angola Prison Death Row from Globevisions. (December 8, 2000)
    Maryland: Execution Chamber Photos.
    Mississippi Death Row Inmate Photos.
    Mississippi Death Chamber Photos. (Gallows, Chair, Gas Chamber, Injection Table)
    Missouri Death Row Inmate Photos.
    Missouri History: Gas Chamber.
    North Carolina Death Row Inmate Photos.
    North Carolina Executed Inmate Photos.
    North Carolina Death Row Housing, Execution Chamber Photos.
    Ohio Executed Inmate photos.
    Oregon Execution Chamber Photo.
    Oregon Execution Chamber Photo.
    Tennessee Death Row Inmate photos. (The Jackson Sun)
    Tennessee Death Row Housing Unit Photos.
    Texas Death Row Inmate Photos.
    Texas Executed Inmate Photos.
    Texas Death Row Photo Gallery (Houston Chronicle Special Report: February 3, 2001)
    Welcome to Huntsville: Texas and the Death Penalty.
    "A Capital Punishment Comic Book," from Fowlerville, Michigan high school students.
    Photos/Illustrations of historical execution methods from Capital Punishments.
    Photo of Newly Constructed Oak Electric Chair. (Florida)
    Electric Chair Photo. (Ohio)
    Photos of 2006 Sadaam Hanging. (Matt Robinson Appalachian State University)
    Photos of Lethal Injection Chamber, Prison and Cemetery. (Texas)
    Photos of Authorized Execution Methods. (About.Com)
    Photo of Electric Chair Chamber. (Ohio)
    Photo of Gas Chamber. (Wyoming)
    Photo of Hanging Noose and Board. (Washington 1994)

    Indiana Death Penalty Sites

    Clark County Indiana Prosecuting Attorney
    Comprehensive information on the Death Penalty in Indiana, including statistics, executions since 1900, current death row (with photos), Indiana death penalty laws, history, and methods of execution, with factual and legal summaries of all death penalty cases since 1977; Up-to-date information on the Death Penalty in the United States; Over 1500 death penalty links arranged by subject, including 100 pro-death penalty links.

    Indianapolis Star: Capital Punishment in Indiana. (2001)

    Listing of executions since 1900, with summary of those executed since 1977; History of Capital Punishment in Indiana; Photos of lethal injection gurney, Indiana State Prison Guard Tower, from the Star library.

    Indiana's Other Lottery: The Death Penalty. (South Bend Tribune October 21, 2001)

    Thorough series of death penalty articles based upon a survey conducted by seven Indiana newspapers - The federal process; Recent executions put federal Death Row in spotlight; Commission studies fairness of death penalty; Indiana lawmakers hesitant to change law; Appeals process offers no signs of uniformity; The moral verdict; Both sides of debate cite Bible in arguments; What's the price of justice?; The crucial influences; Comparing death penalty cost, life sentence without parole; Opponents: Acquittals similar to exonerations; State law seeks to provide strong defense; Prosecutors' death penalty views divergent; It all starts with the prosecutor; Aggravating circumstances lay foundation to seek death; The killing aftermath; Voices from Death Row; Who gets sentenced to death?; Indiana Death Row; Many steps lead to final moments in execution chamber; Michigan remains without death penalty. (Archive fee required)

    The Application of Indiana’s Capital Sentencing Law: Findings of Indiana Criminal Law Study Commission. (January 10, 2002)

    At the request of Governor O'Bannon, the Commission held hearings for almost 2 years in order to answer the following questions: 1. Whether safeguards are in place to ensure that an innocent person is not executed; 2. Whether our special rules requiring definitively trained capital defense counsel are working to ensure that a capital defendant’s legal representation is properly qualified; 3. Whether the review procedures in place in Indiana and in our federal Seventh Circuit appellate courts result in a full and fair review of capital cases; 4. How the cost of a death penalty case compares to that of a case where the charge and conviction is life without parole; 5. Whether Indiana imposes capital sentencing in a race neutral manner; 6. Whether Indiana should consider any changes in its capital sentencing statute.

    "The Social Ecology of Murder In Indiana. (Indiana Criminal Justice Institute December 2004)

    The Social Ecology of Murder in Indiana examines characteristics of those who have murdered, those who have been victims of murder, and the locations of and reasons for murder in Indiana. This important work provides insights to help policymakers understand the factors and circumstances that lead to murder. Mary Ziemba-Davis (ICJI), Brent L. Myers (ICJI), Crystal A. Garcia (IUPUI).

    Indiana Information Center on the Abolition of Capital Punishment.

    "The Indiana Information Center on the Abolition of Capital Punishment (IICACP) exists to expose the injustice associated with the application of the death penalty in Indiana. IICACP is open to anyone who is opposed to the death penalty."

    Indiana Coalition Acting to Suspend Executions.

    "First and foremost, InCASE works to serve the public, media and legislators by providing the most in-depth and accurate information available about Indiana’s death penalty system. With the belief that the available information generates considerable doubt about the death penalty’s fairness and efficacy."

    "Fact Sheet: The Call in Indiana to End the Death Penalty." (Indiana Catholic Conference)

    Policy statement and summary of statements and actions of the Indiana Catholic Conference to end the death penalty in Indiana.

    "The Death Penalty: No Justice No Healing No Closure." (Indiana Catholic Conference)

    ICC brochure summarizes Church teaching and position; provides information about the death penalty; presents the Catechism text regarding death penalty and provides resources for further study.

    "Choose Life: Catholic Teaching and the Death Penalty." (Indiana Catholic Conference August 1998)

    Brief anti-death penalty essay. "As Catholics, we refuse to shrink from recognizing, naming, and rejecting all actions that threaten, diminish, or extinguish life, such as abortion, euthanasia, the physical and sexual abuse of women and children, and capital punishment."

    "Death Penalty Forum," from broadcast.iu.edu. (October 15, 2002)

    Audio of death penalty forum. Sister Helen Prejean and Deputy Indiana Attorney General Tom Perkins make presentations at Indiana University.

    "The Ordeal of Larry Hicks: How an Innocent Man was Almost Executed," by Niles Stanton.

    The story of Larry Hicks, sentenced to Indiana death row in September 1978, and days away from execution in 1979. Written by Niles Stanton, the attorney who successfully got Hicks' death sentence vacated, and represented him during a retrial of the murder charges in November 1980, which resulted in an acquittal.

    "Steven Judy: The World is Better Off," by Laura Lane. (Bloomington Herald-Times October 21, 2001)

    20 years after Steven Judy murdered Terry Chastain and her 3 children, a news reporter interviews the prosecutor, Judge, and defense attorney. (inactive link)

    "Effects of Capital Punishment on the Justice System: Reflections of a State Supreme Court Justice," by Brent E. Dickson. (2006)

    "The decision to employ capital punishment as a criminal sentencing option is the prerogative of the state legislature. Officers of the judicial branch, having taken an oath to uphold the constitution and laws of the state and federal governments, are obligated to apply and enforce the laws as enacted. (Judicature, Volume 89, Number 5, March-April 2006, p. 278)

    "Indiana Death Penalty Assessment Report ." (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project 2007)

    "Indiana’s Death Penalty Problems and Recommendations." (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project 2007)
    Indiana Legislaure: The Bowser Commission Final Report on the Death Penalty for Mentally Ill Individuals.
    Indiana Public Defender Commission: Reimbursement and Standards for Capital Defense.
    "South Bend Attorney and State Senator Cleo Washington ('85) Fighting Vindictive Justice," (Wabash Magazine Winter 1999)
    Indiana Public Defender Council: Death Penalty "Facts."
    Indiana Directory of Prosecuting Attorneys. (IPAC)
    Indiana Death Penalty Information. (Death Penalty Information Center)
    "Stephanie Silvey Investigates: The High Price of Indiana's Death Penalty." (Evansville TV14 News)
    "Stephanie Silvey Investigates: Donald Ray Wallace." (Evansville TV14 News)
    "Stephanie Silvey Investigates: Roy Lee Ward." (Evansville TV14 News)
    "Stephanie Silvey Investigates: Eric Wrinkles." (Evansville TV14 News)
    "Terre Haute, Indiana: Death on the Installment Plan," by Johnathan Shainin. (The Nation July 23, 2001)
    "Apprendi Prohibits Indiana Death Penalty; Making the Case for Life is Cancelled," by Chris Adams. (Death Watch November 2001)
    "Sisters of Providence Oppose the Death Penalty." (St. Mary of the Woods)
    "Indiana Supermax Prison is Torture and Death," by Zolo Agona Azania.
    "If Not Death [for William Minnick], Then What?" by Jonathan David Morris. (The Conservative Voice December 24, 2005)
    "Kernan Grants Historic Death Sentence Clemency," By Brendan O'Shaughnessy and Bob Kasarda. (NW Times July 3, 2004)
    "Former Governor Explains Evolving View of Death Penalty," by Pat Vaughan Tremmel. (Northwestern University Observer Online April 14, 2005)
    "Death Scenes: Obadyah Ben-Yisrayl," by Fran Quigley. (Nuvo.Net 2000)
    "An Unlikely Ally: Commuting Darnell Williams’ Death Sentence," by Karen Hawkins. (Nuvo.Net Aug 18, 2004)
    "In Our Names: A Community Conversation About the Death Penalty," by Michael Dabney. (Nuvo.Net Feb 7, 2007)
    "Hoffmann to Co-Chair Massachusetts Death-Penalty Panel." (Indiana Law)
    "Pope Urges Indiana Not to Execute Paula Cooper," by Roberto Suro. (September 27, 1987)
    "Death Penalty Questioned in Indiana," by TChris. (Talk Left January 18, 2005)
    Review: "An Exhibit of Art from Indiana’s Death Row." by Edgar A. Towne, IICACP. (Saylor, Wrinkles, Wallace, Roche 2006)
    Paula Cooper Case Records, 1986-1989. (Indiana Historical Society Index - Manuscripts & Archives - Processed by Charles Latham 1990)
    "Surviving the Death Penalty. . . ," a book by Diane and Ted Harrington about Donald Ray Wallace. (Author's Den)
    "Grace Encountered During Visit to (Indiana) Death Row," by David Skidmore. (Episcopal News Service May 13, 2003)
    "Attitudes Toward Capital Punishment Among Indiana Legislators: Diminished Support," by Marla Sandys, Edmund McGarrell. (Abstract Only 1994)

    Indiana Death Row Inmate Homepages

    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)

    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)
    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)
    Indiana: Rufus Averhart (Zolo Agona Azania)
    Indiana: Keith Canaan
    Indiana: Perry S. Miller
    Indiana: Michael Dean Overstreet
    Indiana: Christopher Peterson (Obadyah Ben-Yisrayl)
    Indiana: Christopher Peterson (Obadyah Ben-Yisrayl)
    Indiana: Christopher Peterson (Obadyah Ben-Yisrayl)
    Indiana: Gregory Rouster (Gamba Mateen Rastafari)
    Indiana: Gregory Rouster (Gamba Mateen Rastafari)
    Indiana: Benny Saylor
    Indiana: Benny Saylor

    Other States / Regional Sites

    State Death Penalty Links. (Rick Halperin and Joan Brett, SMU)
    State by State Death Penalty Information. (DPIC)
    State by State Summaries of Death Penalty Laws. (High School Curriculum Michigan State Univ)
    State by State Summaries of recent moratorium legislation and information. (The Quixote Center)
    State by State Death Penalty Reports, Legislation, Organizations from the Justice Project.
    Links to State Statutes, Legislation, and Constitution, from Scruffy.
    Links to State Death Penalty Studies from Human Rights Watch. (Indiana's Not Included)
    State by State Biographies and contact information for Governors. (National Governors Association)
    State Departments of Correction Homepages. (The Corrections Connection)
    State Departments of Correction Homepages. (DPIC))
    State Departments of Correction Homepages/Inmate Searches (Florida Department of Correction)
    Prison Search (State by State Inmate Locators, Sex Offender Lists, DOC Links)
    State Court Web Sites. (National Center for State Courts)
    State by State Summary of Execution, Homicide Rates and Death Row Stats. (Capital Punishment U.S.A.)
    Directory of Prosecuting Attorneys, Attorneys General, and U.S. Attorneys on the Net. (Eaton County Prosecutor)
    Directory of Prosecuting Attorneys, Attorneys General, and U.S. Attorneys on the Net. (BC Law)
    The Abolitionist Directories: Anti-Death Penalty Organizations. (State & Local)

    Alabama: Juveniles on Death Row. (Alabama Juvenile Death Penalty Project)
    Alabama Committee to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Alabama Equal Justice Initiative.
    Alabama Death Penalty Laws. (Joseph A. Colquitt, 33 ALA. L. REV. 213 (1982)
    "Alabama Doesn't Execute Innocent People," by Bill Pryor. (Huntsville Times July 4, 2000)
    Alabama: Judicial Override: "The Judge as Lynch Mob," by Ken Silverstein. (American Prospect May 7, 2001)
    Alabama: Project Hope to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Alabama: Death Penalty Fairness. (Birmingham Post-Herald December 2001)
    "In Alabama, a Neglected Defense System Skews Death Row Justice," by Sara Rimer. (NYTimes March 1, 2000)
    Alaska: Focus on the Death Penalty (Univ Alaska Anchorage)
    Alaskans Against the Death Penalty.
    Alaska: The Trial and Hanging of Nelson Charles. (Alaska Justice Forum Spring 1996)
    Arizona Executed Inmates and Death Row Inmates profiles, case summaries, and slide show. (AZCentral 2004)
    Arizona Department of Corrections: Executed Inmates; Death Row Inmates with photos and factual summaries of cases.
    Arizona Capital Case Commission: Interim Report. (Arizona Attorney General)
    Arizona Supreme Court Capital Sentencing Guide. (Aggravating/Mitigating Capital Case Summaries)
    "Capital Punishment in Arizona," from the Capital Punishment Handbook. (9th Circuit Court of Appeals)
    Arizona: Coalition of Arizonans to Abolish the Death Penalty (CAADP).
    Arizona: Anti-Death Penalty Forum (ADPF)
    Arizona: "100th Death Row Inmate Freed in Arizona." (ABCNews.Com April 9, 2002)
    "Arizona Has Nation's Oldest Death Row Inmate, 91 year old Viva Nash." (Chicago Tribune)
    Arkansas Department of Corrections: Death Row by name, race, gender, date and county of conviction.
    "Arkansas Killer's Last Words: I love you, my babies." (AP May 3, 2000)
    Arkansas: Public Defender Commission, Attorney Eligibility Death Cases.
    California: Chief Justice Rose Bird, Pro and Con. (Last Updated 1986)
    California DOC (Executed Inmates, Death Row Inmates, Photos, Virtual Tour, History, and Execution Procedures)
    California Lethal Injection Execution Protocol - Operational Procedure Number 0-770. (Morales v. Woodford March 6, 2006)
    "Capital Punishment in California," from the Capital Punishment Handbook. (9th Circuit Court of Appeals)
    California: Anti-Death Penalty Focus.
    San Jose Peace and Justice Center.
    California Crime Victims for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.
    California People of Faith Working Against the Death Penalty.
    California State Public Defender Home Page.
    California: 73% Favor Moratorium Until Fairness Studied. (SF Chronicle June 22, 2000)
    California Supreme Court Policies and Procedures for Appointment of Counsel in Capital Cases.
    "California has Wasted Enough Time on Kevin Cooper," by Michael Rushford and Sue Blake. (March 2004)
    "California Death-Row Senior Becomes Second Oldest Executed in U.S." (CBC News January 17, 2006)
    California Disrict Attorneys: "A Prosecutor's Perspective on the Death Penalty." (March 19, 2003)
    Colorado Department of Corrections (History and Death Row Roster, with photos)
    Colorado: "The Penalty (Part I-IV)," by Steve Jackson. (Denver Westword June, 2001)
    Coloradans Against the Death Penalty.
    Colorado and Capital Punishment. (Colorado State Public Defender)
    "Colorado Killer Fights Death Penalty," by Colleen Slevin. (AP August 4, 2001)
    "Colorado Death Penalty Misguided," by David Lane. (Denver Post January 25, 2002)
    Colorado Bar Association Moratorium Resolution, With District Attorney Response. (December 2000)
    Colorado: "Death Sentence Decisions Shift from Juries to Judges," by Jillian Lloyd. (CSMonitor December 1, 1998)
    Colorado: "States Starting to Change Death Penalty Laws; Colorado Leads Way," by Catherine Tsai. (AP NACDL)
    Colorado: "Colorado's Death Penalty: Back in the Hands of a Jury," by Colette S. Peters. (Colorado Legislative Council August 18, 2003)
    Colorado: Death Penalty History. (League of Women Voters January 2007)
    Colorado: "Death Penalty Cases Rare in Colorado, With One Exception," by Chris Vanderveen. (KUSA TV9 March 10, 2008)
    Colorado: "The Federal and Colorado Death Penalty," posted by Andrew Oh-Willeke. (Wash Park Prophet May 5, 2006)
    Colorado: "Notorious Death Penalty Inmate Dies." (The Denver Channel 7 March 9, 2002)
    "Colorado Death Penalty Costs on Rise," by Burt Hubbard. (Rocky Mountain News December 11, 2000)
    "Colorado Death Penalty Shows Trend Toward Abolition," by Michael Radelet. (Univ Colorado Boulder May 12, 2003)
    "Capital Punishment in Colorado: 1859–1972," by Michael Radelet. (Colorado Public Defender 2003)
    Colorado: "Our Governor Doesn't Understand Death Penalty's Racial Biases," by Michael Radelet. (MSU State News Nov 13, 2003)
    Connecticut Commission on the Death Penalty: Final Report. (August 15, 2003)
    Connecticut: U.S. District Court Forms for Attorney Vouchers in Capital Cases.
    Connecticut: United Students Against the Death Penalty.
    Connecticut: "Death by the Numbers," by Jonathan Mills. (Hartford Advocate February 19, 2004)
    "Inside the Mind of the Prosecutor Who Put Away 5 of 7 Connecticut Death Row Inmates," by Paul Bass. (Hartford Advocate December 13, 2001)
    Connecticut: "Dead Wrong - The Death Penalty Debate Continues," by Joe Miksch. (Fairfield Weekly January 29, 2004)
    Connecticut Death Penalty Laws.
    Connecticut Death Penalty - History, Cases, Legislation, Executions, Links. (Connecticut State Library)
    Connecticut: "Death Penalty on Trial in Connecticut," by Ben Conery. (Republican American January 27, 2008)
    Connecticut Network to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Connecticut: Do Not Kill in My Name.
    Connecticut: "Connecticut Voters Back Death Penalty." (Quinnipiac University January 12, 2005)
    Connecticut: "The Death of Capital Punishment? (Connecticut Public Broadcasting Network March 10, 2008)
    Delaware Department of Correction (History, Executions, and Death Row)
    Delaware Citizens Opposed to the Death Penalty. (depaceminterris)
    Delaware Citizens Opposed to the Death Penalty.
    Delaware: "Jury Backs Death Penalty for Prominent Lawyer Capano." (CNN January 29, 1999)
    Delaware: "Capano Death Penalty Overturned." (CNN January 12, 2006)
    Delaware Holds First Hanging Since 1946," by Maureen Milford and Esteban Parra. (Delaware Online January 25, 1996)
    Delaware: "Prosecutor Debates Philosopher on Death Penalty." (Univ Delaware April 5, 2006)
    Florida Department of Corrections Death Row Fact Sheet, Current Death Row, Executions, Statistics.
    Florida Department of Corrections Death Row Annual Reports 1995-2007.
    Florida Execution Summaries 1979-2000. (Tampa Bay Online June 21, 2000)
    Florida Criminal Justice and Corrections Council 1999 Resource Book. (Death Penalty, page 74)
    Capital Punishment in Florida. (Wikipedia)
    "Florida Commission on Capital Cases: Case Histories, a Review of 24 Individuals Released from Death Row." (September 10, 2002)
    "Florida Death Penalty System Criticised," by Mark Weisenmiller. (IPS September 26, 2006)
    "Florida Stands Firm Amid Death Penalty Debate," by Abby Vansickle. (St. Petersburg Times December 20, 2007)
    "Florida's Death Row Inmates Await Fate," by David Angier. (Panama City News April 19, 2008)
    "Florida Death Penalty: Recent Developments." (FADP September 7, 2001)
    "Florida Death Row From the Inside." (St. Petersburg Times May 24, 2004)
    Florida Catholic Conference: Campaign to End Use of the Death Penalty.
    Florida: Suit Filed Alleging Death Defense is a Sham. (1998 National Law Journal)
    Florida Death Row Advocacy Group, Working to Maintain and Improve Living Conditions.
    "Florida Fights Over Death Row Lawyers," by Warren Richey. (Chriustian Science Monitor February 20, 2003)
    Florida: Prisoner Support Anti-Death Penalty Site. (Electric Chair/Gurney photos)
    Florida: "Death Penalty Referendum Stirs Debate," by Curtis Krueger. (St. Petersburg Times, October 16, 1998)
    "Florida AG Opposed To Changes In State's Death Penalty." (North Country Gazette November 1, 2005)
    Florida: Post-Execution Photos of Allen Lee "Tiny" Davis. (CCADP)
    Florida Editorial Suggesting Change to Lethal Injection. (Jacksonville.Com January 13, 1998)
    Florida: "Capital Cases Task Force: Racial Bias Unclear," by Joe Becker. (St. Petersburg Times April 8, 2000)
    Floridians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty. (FADP)
    South Florida Committee Against the Death Penalty.
    Florida: First Federal Death Penalty Acquittal, by William D. Matthewman. (NACDL The Champion June 1996)
    "Florida Death Penalty Assessment Report ." (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project 2006)
    "Florida Marchers Spotlight Growing Scrutiny of Death Penalty," by Judy Gross." (NCROnline February 15, 2002)
    Florida: Anti-DP Speech by former Chief Justice Kogan to Amnesty International. (CUADP October 23, 1999)
    "Florida Death Sentence Elicits Outrage in Spain," by Noah Bierman. (Miami Herald November 23, 2003)
    "Florida Governor Halts the Death Penalty," by Adam Liptak and Terry arguayo. (NYTimes December 16, 2006)
    Florida: "Opponents Challenge Death Penalty in Florida," by Greg Allen. (NPR April 25, 2008)
    Florida: The Death Penalty Deabte. (St. Augustine.Com 2001-04)
    Georgia Department of Corrections: History, Executions, Inmates Under Death Sentence January 1, 2008.
    Georgia: Southern Center for Human Rights Death Penalty Information.
    Georgia Indigent Defense Council. (GIDC)
    Georgia Capital Defenders. (GIDC)
    "A Matter of Life or Death." (Atlanta Journal-Constitution. (September 2007)
    Georgians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.
    Georgia Moratorium Campaign: Time-Out on Executions.
    "Georgia's New Lethal Injection Statute," by Michael Mears. (GIDC 2000)
    "Georgia Needs a Racial Justice Act," by Michael Mears. (GIDC August 1998)
    "Death by Lethal Injection or Death by Electrocution, And the Difference Is?," by Michael Mears. (GIDC 2000)
    The Death Penalty in Georgia, USA - Racist, Arbitrary and Unfair. (Amnesty International June 1996)
    Furman v. Georgia (S.Ct. 1972) (Wikipedia)
    Gregg v. Georgia (S.Ct. 1976) (Wikipedia)
    "Will Georgia Kill an Innocent Man, Troy Davis?" by Brendan Lowe. (Time.Com July 13, 2007)
    "Death In Georgia: The High Price of Trying to Save an Infamous Killer’s Life," by Jeffrey Toobin. (New Yorker February 4, 2008)
    "Georgia Murder Case’s Cost Saps Public Defense System," by Brenda Goodman. (NYTimes March 22, 2007)
    Georgia: "Profiles of Inmates on Georgia's Death Row," by Sandy Hodson. (Augusta Chronicle September 21, 1997)
    "Georgia's Racist Death Penalty," by Heather Gray (CounterPunch January 2, 2008)
    "Georgia Death Penalty Assessment Report ." (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project January 2006)
    Georgia Bishops' Statement on the Death Penalty, 1980, 1992. (US Conference of Catholic Bishops)
    Georgia: Complete Audio of the Georgia Execution Tapes 1983-1996, from SoundPortraits.Org.
    "The Georgia Death Penalty and the Habeas Corpus Reform Act of 1995." (Georgia Defender November 1995).
    "Capital Punishment in Idaho," from the Capital Punishment Handbook. (9th Circuit Court of Appeals)
    "Idaho Service Calls for End to Death Penalty," by Shannon Lafferty. (Idaho Statesman April 22, 2000)
    Idahoans for Alternatives to the Death Penalty: "A Needless and Wasteful Institution," by Gardner Hanks.
    Idaho: "Resentencing Not Required In 14 Idaho Capital Cases." (Idaho Attorney General Press Release June 24, 2004)
    Idaho Statesman Editorial: "Death Penalty Deserves Higher Level of Scrutiny." (January 9, 2003)
    Idaho Indigent Capital Litigation Unit.
    Idaho Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    Idaho Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    Idaho Death Penalty Jury Instructions. (Idaho Supreme Court)
    "Idaho Death Row Inmate Charles Fain Is Freed After DNA Test Clears Him, by Raymond Bonner. (NYTimes August 24, 2001)
    "Illinois Suspends Death Penalty." (CNN.Com January 31, 2000)
    Illinois: "A Talk With Governor George Ryan," by Bruce Shapiro. The Nation January 8, 2001)
    IllinoisDeathPenalty.Com. (Illinois Death Row, Executions, "Exonerations")
    Illinois Death Penalty Information from Jim Thomas, Critical Criminology Homepage.
    Illinois: Injustices of the Death Penalty. (The MacArthur Justice Center)
    Illinois Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Abolition in Illinois Movement: Taking AIM at the Death Penalty in Illinois.
    Illinois Death Penalty: Suspending Executions. (PBS Online News Hour February 4, 2000)
    Illinois Death Penalty: Update. (PBS Online News Hour May 10, 2001)
    Illinois' 13 Exonerated Death Row Prisoners Since 1977. (Chicago Tribune)
    Illinois Cases of Exonerated Death Row Inmates. (University of Alaska Anchorage Death Penalty Focus)
    Illinois: Condemned Unit Inmates. (Illinois Department of Corrections)
    "Illinois: The Quality of Justice in Capital Cases," by Leigh B. Bienen. (61 Law & Contemp. Probs. 193 Autumn 1998)
    Illinois Issues Online: Death Penalty "Political Aggravation," by Aaron Chambers. (October 2001)
    Illinois Prosecutors Bar Association.
    Illinois Office of the State Appellate Defender: Death Penalty Materials and Links.
    Illinois Governor's Commission on Capital Punishment: Report to Governor Ryan. (April 12, 2002)
    Illinois: "Blanket Commutations Empty Death Row," by Jeff Flock. (CNN January 13, 2003)
    Illinois: "Why I Support the Illinois Moratorium Campaign," by Jesse Jackson, Jr. (April 21, 1997)
    Illinois: "Clearing of Death Row Greeted by Global Cheers," by Barry James. (NYTimes January 13, 2003)
    Illinois: "Governor Ryan's Decision: America's New Abolitionism," by Austin Sarat. (FindLaw January 15, 2003)
    Illinois: "Ryan Clearing Death Row." (CBSNews January 11, 2003)
    Illinois: "I Will Not Stand For It!" by Illinois Governor George Ryan. (Speech at Northwestern University January 11, 2003)
    "Justice Reconsidered - Illinois Empties Death Row." (PBS NewsHour With Jim Lehrer Transcript January 13, 2003)
    "Illinois Wrongful Capital Murder Convictions - 13 Case Profiles," from Critical Criminology.
    "Illinois: Prosecutors Assess Death Penalty's New Era," by Jodi Wilgoren. (NYTimes January 14, 2003)
    Illinois Death Row Roster (1977-2003). (Center for Wrongful Convictions)
    Illinois Death Penalty History: 1972-2003 Timeline. (Chicago Tribune Center for Wrongful Convictions)
    Illinois Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    Illinois: "Outgoing Governor Empties Death Row of 167 Killers." (ProDeathPenalty.Com)
    Illinois: Death Penalty Abolition 2008 Issues Briefing. (Illinois League of Women Voters)
    Illinois Governor George Ryan. (Wikipedia)
    Illinois Conference of Churches Public Policy Resolution: "Abandon the Death Penalty. (January 31, 2006)
    Illinois: "DuPage Leaders Revive Death Penalty Debate," by Christy Gutowski. (Daily Herald February 12, 2008)
    Illinois: Capital Punishment Reform Study Committee 2005-2008. (Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority)
    Iowa: "Reinstate the Death Penalty," by Robert Zeis. (Iowa State Daily February 3, 1998)
    "The Death Penalty in Iowa." (Quakers NYTimes December 24, 1872)
    Iowa: "Hanging Friday Tenth in Iowa." (Iowa Recorder, Greene, Butler County Iowa March 7, 1923)
    Iowa: "Man is Hanged in Iowa; First to Pay Death Penalty in 12 Years Goes to Gallows Smiling." (NYTimes September 9, 1922)
    "Iowa is Faced with a Capital Punishment Trial - Dustin Honken." (Des Moines Register October 21, 2004)
    Iowa: Victor Feguer, the Last Person Executed in Iowa. (Wikipedia)
    Iowa: Photos, Rap Sheet, and Trial documents of Victor Feguer, the Last Person Executed in Iowa. (The Smoking Gun)
    Iowa Catholic Bishops Statement on the Death Penalty. (February 4, 1998)
    Iowa: "Chet Culver, The Death Penalty, And The Bentler Murders." (October 14, 2006)
    Iowans Against the Death Penalty.
    Iowa Opinion Polls Say Public Supports Reinstatement of Capital Punishment. (December 15, 1997)
    Kansas: "In Cold Blood, A Legacy." (Lawrence Journal-World April 2005)
    Kansas: "In Cold Blood, A Legacy." (Lawrence Journal-World April 5, 2005)
    Kansas: "Technology Might Have Helped Solve Crime Faster," by Michael Bruntz." (Lawrence Journal-World April 5, 2005)
    Kansas: "A Crime for All Time; KU Student Who Killed Family One of State’s Last Executions," by Mike Belt. (Lawrence Journal Nov 28, 2005)
    Kansas Legislator Briefing Book 2008: Indigent Defense Services - The Death Penalty.
    Kansas: "Court Upholds Kansas Death Penalty," by Bill Mears. (CNN Law Center June 26, 2006)
    Kansas: "What's the Matter with Kansas Capital Punishment?" by Christopher Kriva. (Northwestern Medill Journalism.
    Kansas: "Supporters Thankful Death Penalty Punishment Still Intact," by Chris Grenz. (Topeka Capital-Journal March 17, 2003)
    "Kansas Governor Vetoes Death Penalty Again." (AP NYTimes February 22, 1981)
    Kansas Death Penalty Guide for 2005. (Amnesty International)
    Kansas Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    Kansas Death Penalty Focus: Focusing Attention on the Injustice of the Kansas Death Penalty.
    Kansas: "Death Penalty Moratorium Bill Introduced in Senate," by Scott Rothschild. (Lawrence Journal-World February 3, 2003)
    Kansas: Report of the Kansas Judicial Council Death Penalty Advisory. (November 12, 2004)
    Kentucky Department of Corrections: Death Row. (Short case summaries with photos)
    Kentucky Death Row. (Fayette County Commonwealth Attorney Ray Larsen)
    Kentucky Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Kentucky: "Group Seeks to Abolish the Death Penalty in Kentucky. (Jewish Community Federation February 7, 2003)
    "The Power, Practice and Process of Commutation of Persons Sentenced to Death. (Kentucky Public Defenders)
    Kentucky: The State Sponsored Killing of Harold McQueen.
    Kentucky Racial Justice Act. (Coalition for Prisoners' Rights Newsletter July 1998)
    "Race and the Death Penalty in Kentucky Murder Trials: Post-Gregg Outcomes," by Keil and Vito. (Justice Q March 1990)
    Kentucky: "Man (Larry Osborne) Sent to Death Row is Acquitted in Retrial," by Deborah Yetter. (Courier Journal August 1, 2002)
    Kentucky: "Lethal Injection Upheld; States Can Resume Executions After Baze Ruling." (Courier Journal April 17, 2008)
    Kentucky: "Baze Not Sorry For Shooting Sheriff, Deputy; Fights Execution." (WKYT-TV January 6, 2008)
    Kentucky Juveniles: Kevin Stanford. (International Justice Project)
    Louisiana: "Rape a Child, Pay With Your Life, Louisiana Argues," by Bill Mears. (CNNNews April 15, 2008)
    Louisiana: "High Court Split Over Execution of Child Rapists," by Bill Mears. (CNNNews April 16, 2008)
    Kennedy v. Louisiana. (US Supreme Court Wiki)
    "A Second Louisiana Death Sentence for Non-Homicidal Child Rape." (StandDown Texas Project December 13, 2007)
    "Capital Punishment in Louisiana. (Louisiana Public Square February 21, 2007)
    "Louisiana Death-Row Inmate Ryan Matthews Released," by Katy Reckdahl. (June 23, 2004)
    Louisiana: Resurrection After Exoneration.
    Louisiana: "Not Bloody Guilty," by Dana Mulhauser (Legal Affairs Nov/Dec 2005)
    Louisiana Capital Assistance Center.
    Louisiana: "France Recognizes Citizenship of Death Row Inmate LeGrand." (Clarinews October 3, 2003)
    Louisiana: "Death Penalty Upheld for New Orleans Ex-Cop," by Gwen Filosa.(nola.com May 23, 2007)
    Louisiana: "Life After Death Row for Michael Graham." (CBSNews March 5, 2001)
    Louisiana: "John Thompson becomes 108th Innocent Exonerated from Death Row. (Louisiana ACLU May 9, 2003)
    Louisiana: Photos of Angola Prison Death Row from Globevisions. (December 8, 2000)
    Maryland Department of Correction: Capital Punishment in Maryland - Laws, History, Persons Executed.
    "Maryland Suspends Executions," by Lori Montgomery. (Washington Post May 10, 2002)
    "Maryland Death Penalty Moratorium; Gov. Glendening Halts Executions Until Bias Study Is Completed." (CBSNews May 9, 2002)
    Maryland: Baltimore Sun Articles on the Death Penalty in Maryland. (2002-2008)
    Maryland Citizens Against State Executions.
    Maryland Attorney General Calls For Abolition of Death Penalty. (Press Release January 30, 2003)
    Maryland: "Victim's Family Awaits Killer's Execution," by Julie Bykowicz. (Baltimore Sun June 8, 2004)
    Maryland: History, Death Row Inmates and Executed Inmates. (Maryland Citizens Against State Executions)
    Maryland: "A Shorter Line on Death Row," by Susan Levine. (Wash Post June 19, 2004)
    Maryland: Report Of The Governor's Commission On The Death Penalty. (April 27, 1994)
    "Maryland Study, When Properly Analyzed, Supports Death Penalty," by Kent Scheidegger. (CJLF) 1994)
    "An Empirical Analysis of Maryland’s Death Sentencing System with Respect to the Influence of Race and Jurisdiction. (UM 1999)
    "UM Study: Race, Geography Factors in Md. Death Penalty Decisions." (University of Maryland Newsdesk January 7, 2003)
    Maryland: "The Cost of the Death Penalty in Maryland, 1978-1999," by Roman, Chalfin, Sundquist, Knight, and Darmenov. (March 2008)
    Maryland: "Death Penalty Opponents Trying Again To Repeal It in Maryland," by Kelly Wilson. (Southern Maryland Online March 07, 2008)
    Maryland Governor Martin O'Malley: "Why I Oppose the Death Penalty." (February 21, 2007)
    Maryland: "Other Voices of Support for Death Penalty Repeal," by Andrew Kujan. (March 08, 2007)
    Maryland Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    Maryland State Commission on Criminal Sentencing Policy: "Research on Death Penalty and Related Topics," by Greg Jones and Michael Connelly (July 2001)
    Maryland: "Fairness of Death Penalty Panels Questioned," by John Gramlich. (Stateline.Org May 02, 2008)
    Maryland: "Anti-Death Penalty Activist Befriends Men on Maryland's Death Row, by Caryn Tamber. (Baltimore Daily Record June 9, 2006)
    Massachusetts ACLU.
    No Death Penalty in Massachusetts.
    Massachusetts Citizens Against the Death Penalty.
    Massachusetts: Statehouse Testimony Against Reinstatement of the Death Penalty. (1999)
    Massachusetts: Boston College Law Against the Death Penalty.
    Massachusetts: "Success at Long Last, Abolition of the Death Penalty 1928-1984," by Alan Rogers. (BC Journal 2002)
    Massachusetts: "Women and the Death Penalty in Massachusetts, An Historical Review," by Laura James." (CLEWS True Crime Blog)
    Massachusetts: "Romney Takes Scientific Approach to Death Penalty." (Press Release September 23, 2003)
    Massachusetts: "Hoffmann to Co-Chair Massachusetts Death-Penalty Panel." (Indiana School of Law 2003)
    Massachusetts: "Can You Build a Foolproof Death Penalty?" by Seth Stern. (Christian Science Monitor November 05, 2003)
    Massachusetts: "Romney's 'Failsafe' Death Penalty Bill Executed." (Hub Politics November 17, 2005)
    Massachusetts: "Death Penalty Bill Fails in House; Romney Initiative Roundly Defeated," by Scott Helman. (November 16, 2005)
    Massachusetts: "Murder and the Death Penalty in Massachusetts," by Alan Rogers. (UMass Book Review April 2008)
    Massachusetts Law and Facts on the Death Penalty (Massachusetts Trial Court Law Library)
    Mississippi Department of Corrections: Death Row. (List of Executed and Death Row Inmates with photos)
    "The History of Capital Punishment in Mississippi: An Overview," by Donald A. Cabana. (History Now October 2004)
    Mississippi Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    Mississippi: "Death Penalty Getting Costly in Mississippi," by Charlie Mitchell. (Clarion Ledger November 6, 2005)
    Mississippi: "Waiting for Death in Mississippi." (Talk Left Blog December 9, 2005)
    Resources on the Administration of the Death Penalty in Mississippi. (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project.
    Mississippi ACLU: The Death Penalty in Mississippi.
    Mississippi: "A Couple of Bay Area Lawyers Take on Death Row," by Michael Breen. (The Recorder March 6, 2000)
    Missouri: Capital Punishment in Missouri from MissouriNet.
    Western Missouri Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Eastern Missouri Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Missourians to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    Missouri Clemency Petitions 1989-2002. (Margaret B. Phillips, University of Missouri at St. Louis)
    "Miscarriages of Justice: A Review of Missouri's Clemency Applications." Missourians to Abolish the Death Penalty January 2001)
    Missouri: "Life and Death Decisions - Prosecutorial Discretion and Capital Punishment. (Saint Louis University March 2, 2007)
    "Death Penalty: In Missouri, Where You Live May Matter," by David Sloss. (St. Louis Beacon April 28, 2008)
    "Missouri Death Penalty is Flawed." (ACLU of Eastern Missouri)
    Missouri Death Penalty Survey 1999." (WMCADP)
    Missouri: "The Management of Death-Sentenced Inmates," by George Lombardi, Richard D. Sluder, and Donald Wallace. (1996)
    Missouri Supreme Court Rules Juvenile Death Penalty Unconstitutional. (Southern Juvenile Defender Center 2003)
    Capital Punishment in Montana, from the Capital Punishment Handbook. (9th Circuit Court of Appeals)
    Montana Department of Corrections: Death Row. (List of Death Row Inmates with photos)
    "Montana Death Row Inmate Commits Suicide." (CNN Law Center February 2, 2004)
    Montana Human Rights Network.
    Montana Abolition Coalition.
    Montana: "Assistant Attorney General Asks House to End Death Penalty." (Billings Gazette March 10, 2007)
    "Montana Senate Votes for Abolishing Death Penalty; Despite Polls Sshowing Montanans Back Punishment." (MSNBC February 23, 2007)
    "In Montana: Death Penalty Needs to be Abolished," by The Standard Staff. (Montana Standard February 3, 2007)
    Montana Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    Montana Death Penalty Study Commission. (House Bill No. 697 Effective July 1, 2007)
    Montana Job Posting: Anti-Capital Punishment Organizers, $25,000 per year. (Posted by Montana Abolition Coalition April 2008)
    Montana: "Fate of Canadian Man On Montana Death Row Unclear." (DigitalJournal.Com November 1, 2007)
    Montana: "ACLU Sues to Challenge Lethal Injection in Montana," by Susan Gallagher. (AP Flathead Beacon April 3, 2008)
    Nebraska Department of Correctional Services: Capital Punishment. (History, Death Row)
    The Disposition of Nebraska Capital and Non-Capital Homicide Cases (1973-1999); A Legal and Empirical Analysis. (2002)
    Nebraskans Against the Death Penalty. (Current and former Death Row)
    Nebraska: "Author of Death Penalty Study Says Work Taken Out of Context," by Scott Bauer (AP August 7, 2001)
    "Nebraska Study Finds No Racial Disparity," by Kevin O'Hanlon. (AP August 1, 2001)
    "Nebraska Electric Chair Is Torture; Judges Declare State's Only Death Penalty Procedure Is Unconstitutional." (CBSNews February 9, 2008)
    Nebraska Supreme Court: State of Nebraska v. Raymond Mata, No. S-05-1268, Filed February 8, 2008.
    "Nebraska Retains the Death Penalty, but State Still Has No Means of Executing Inmates," by Anna Jo Bratton. (AP March 25, 2008)
    Capital Punishment in Nevada, from the Capital Punishment Handbook. (9th Circuit Court of Appeals)
    Nevada: "An Outline of Capital Punishment," by Guy Louis Rocha. (History, Executions List)
    Nevada: 85 Remain on Death Row (Las Vegas Review-Journal (October 5, 1998)
    Nevada Death Penalty: Bridges Executed for 1997 Murder; South African National Refused to Appeal," by Sean Whaley. ((Las Vegas Review-Journal (April 22, 2001)
    Nevada: "Nevada Death Row Inmate Dies of Natural Causes at 45," by Sandra Chereb. (July 27, 1998)
    Nevada: "Mexican National on Death Row," by Sean Whaley. (April 1, 2004)
    Nevada: "Man Freed From Death Row Gets $5M," by Brendan Riley. (AP June 30, 2004)
    Nevada's Death Penalty System is Working," by Barry Latzer and James N. G. Cauthen. (DPINFO 2000)
    Nevada's Death Penalty System is Working," (Nevada Attorney General Press Release
    Nevada Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    Nevada Death Penalty Laws. (FindLaw)
    Nevada Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    "Nevada Death Row Alleged to Have Inadequate Medical Services, by David Kihara. (Las Vegas Review-Journal May 9, 2006)
    Nevada: "Death Penalty Foes Speak Out in Las Vegas," by Ed Koch. (Las Vegas Sun March 25, 2004)
    New Hampshire Death Penalty Forum: "Current Issues of the Death Penalty in New Hampshire.” (Pierce Law Center April 15, 2008)
    "New Hampshire Attorney General Opposes Death Penalty Study," by Dan Gorenstein. (New Hampshire Public Radio April 22, 2008).
    "The Death Penalty in New Hampshire," by Laura Knoy. (New Hampshire Public Radio November 3, 2006)
    Abolish New Hampshire's Death Penalty! (NODP)
    New Hampshire Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    "New Hampshire Governor Vetoes Bill to Abolish Death Penalty," by (Democracy Now! May 22, 2000)
    New Hampshire Death Penalty. (Wikipedia)
    "New Hampshire Revives Death Penalty Issue; Officer's Killing Spurs a Debate," by Jonathan Saltzman. (Boston Globe October 19, 2006)
    New Hampshire: "The Execution of Pike, the Murderer, in New Hampshire Tomorrow." (NYTimes November 8, 1869)
    New Hampshire: "The New Abolitionism and the Possibilities of Legislative Action," by Austin Sarat. (Ohio State Law Journal 2000)
    New Jerseyans for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.
    New Jersey: Pro-Death Penalty When it Fits the Crime.
    New Jersey Death Row Inmates With Photos, from ConnieTalk.Com. (2007)
    "New Jersey Finds Penalty Statistical Models Unstable," by Padraic Cassidy. (American Lawyer May 10, 1999)
    "New Jersey: "Death of a Mudman," by Paul Davis. (Online Mystery Magazine September 6, 2002)
    "New Jersey: "LIfe Grim For Those on Death Row," by Jason Laughlin. (South Jersey News November 22, 2002)
    New Jersey State Prison Death Row: Procedures and Routine. (Bergen Record April 26, 1998)
    New Jersey: Report to the Supreme Court on Race and the Death Penalty. (June 1, 2001)
    New Jersey: Systemic Proportionality Review Project 2002-2003. (Special Master David Baime October 2, 2003)
    New Jersey: Interim Report to Special Master David Baime - Race Monitoring. (Weisburd and Naus September 28, 2004)
    New Jersey: "Debating the Death Penalty," by David Proch. (Newark Metro)
    New Jersey: "A Statement from the Catholic Bishops on Capital Punishment." (1999)
    New Jersey: Capital Punishment Museum Trenton - Closed.
    New Jersey: "The Risk of Executing the Innocent," by Sandra K. Manning. (New Jersery L. J. Feb. 20, 2002)
    New Jersey Death Penalty Study Commission Report. (January 2007)
    New Jersey Death Penalty Report Flawed From the Start," by Sharon Hazard-Johnson. (Phila Enquirer March 02, 2007)
    New Jersey Governor Corzine Signs Legislation Eliminating Death Penalty. (Press Release December 17, 2007)
    New Jersey Governor Corzine Signs Bill Banning N.J. Death Penalty," by Michael Rispoli. (USA Today December 17, 2007)
    "New Jersey Abolishes Death Penalty: Governor Corzine Signs Bill." (CBSNews December 17, 2007)
    "New Jersey: A Death Penalty Trend? (Time.Com December 17, 2007)
    "New Jersey Latest to Try Death Penalty Repeal," by John Gramlich. (Stateline.Org December 11, 2007)
    "Megan's Law Killer Escapes Death Under N.J. Execution Ban." (CNNPolitics.Com December 7, 2007)
    "The Death Penalty Returns to New Mexico," by Kenneth W. Mentor. (Western Social Science Association, April 2002)
    "New Mexico Executions: "The Death Penalty Since Territorial Days," by Mark Allan. (Angelo State October 26, 2001) (inactive link)
    New Mexico Death Penalty. (Albuquerque Tribune November 6, 2001) (inactive link)
    New Mexico: The Terry Clark Story, Death of a Child Killer. (Albuquerque Tribune November 6, 2001) (inactive link)
    New Mexico Coalition to Repeal the Death Penalty. (2006)
    New Mexico Catholic Conference Opposes Death Penalty.
    New Mexico Death Penalty Task Force Final Report. (State Bar of NM January 23, 2004)
    "New Mexico House Votes to Abolish Death Penalty." (Free New Mexican March 1, 2005)
    "New Mexico Judge Rules Death Penalty Unconstitutional." (Amnesty International June 21, 2007)
    "New Mexico: "Death Penalty Costs New Mexico Millions, Justice," by State Rep. Gail Chasey. (Albequerque Democrat November 4, 2007)
    "New Mexico Death Penalty: "Court Says, Pay Up - Or Let Live!," by Adrianne Appel. (InterPress News April 23, 2008)
    "New Mexico: "Death Penalty is Usually Sought for People of Color," by Karen Francis. (Gallup Independent February 4, 2008)
    New Mexico: "Women and the Death Penaltyin New Mexico: The Twice-Hanged Angel," by Laura James. (CLEWS November 9, 2005)
    "Future Unclear for New Mexico Death Penalty." (Amarillo.Com May 14, 2001)
    New Mexico Governor Richardson in Support of Death Penalty. (2008)
    "New York Capital Plea Bargaining Statute Struck Down," by Gary Spencer. (New York Law Journal 1998)
    New Yorkers Against the Death Penalty.
    Northeast Death Penalty Abolition Organizing Pages. (CT, NY, NJ, NH, MA, RI, ME, VT)
    New York Capital Defender Office.
    New York State Defenders Association, Capital Defense.
    New York: "Dying Twice: Conditions on New York's Death Row." (Prison Policy Initiative 2001)
    New York: Capital Punishment Research Initiative. (University of Albany National Death Penalty Archive)
    New York: Death Penalty in New York, Testimony Collection, 1965-2005. (University of Albany Special Collections and Archives)
    New York: "Federal Judges Revolt Over Death Penalty," by Joseph Goldstein. (New York Sun March 4, 2008)
    "New York Prosecutors Slow Pace to Death Row," by Yancey Roy. (Ithica Journal December 2, 2003)
    "New York Lawyers Prepare for New York's Death Penalty," by John Hoffman. (NYTimes August 31, 1995)
    "Bronx District Attorney Viewpoint on the Death Penalty / Life Without Parole." (1995, 1996, 1998)
    "New York Death Penalty Moratorium Resolution from the New York State Defenders Association. (July 25, 2002)
    "New York Death Penalty Law Declared Unconstitutional." (DPIC June 24, 2004)
    New York v. LaValle, 3 N.Y.3d 88 (New York Court of Appeals June 24 2004). (Wikipedia)
    "The Death Penalty In New York," a Report from the General Assembly. (April 3, 2005)
    "Death Penalty Jurisprudence in New York and the Supremacy Clause," by Joseph E. Fahey. (November 2, 2006)
    "New Yorkers OK with Death Penalty." (Angus Reid Global Monitor, Polls & Research May 07, 2007)
    "New York Times Obsessed With the Texas Death Penalty." (YouTube 2007)
    North Carolina and the Death Penalty. (North Carolina Department of Correction)
    North Caolina People of Faith Against the Death Penalty. (PFADP)
    North Carolina Coalition for a m.
    North Carolina Campaign to End the Death Penalty. (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
    North Carolina: Race and the Death Penalty in North Carolina 1993-97. (Dr. Isaac Unah and Professor John Charles Boger April 16, 2001)
    North Carolina: "No Death Sentence For Drunken Driver In Student Killings," by Kevin Sack. (NYTimes May 7, 1997)
    "North Carolina Death Penalty Racially Unfair, UNC Professors Find," by David Williamson. (Carolina Newsw Service April 16, 2001)
    North Carolina: "Death Penalty Changes May Signal Watershed Year in NC," by William L. Holmes. (The Herald Sun January 18, 2003)
    North Carolina: "Death Penalty a Decreasing Rarity in N.C., Cabarrus County," by Josh Lanier. (Independent Tribune October 5, 2007)
    North Carolina: Center for Death Penalty Litigation.
    North Carolina Actual Innocence Commission: Recommendations for Eyewitness Identification.
    "North Carolina Creates a New Route to Exoneration, an Official Innocence Commission," by Patrik Jonsson. (CSM August 10, 2006)
    North Carolina: "Alan Gell, Free From Death Row," by Alan Maass. (Socialist Worker February 27, 2004)
    North Carolina: "Death Row Ordeal Behind Him, Levon 'Bo' Jones Steps into Freedom," by Titan Barksdale. (News Observer May 3, 2008)
    North Carolina: "Focus On: The Death Penalty in North Carolina." (UNC TV Focus On Series)
    "North Carolina Needs to Rethink the Death Penalty," from PFADP. (Carrobo Citizen February 6, 2008)
    North Carolina: Death Watch Blog.
    The Death Penalty in North Dakota. (North Dakota Supreme Court)
    North Dakota: "Death Penalty Not Likely to be Brought Back. (Minot Daily News December 7, 2003)
    "North Dakota's First Capital Punishment Case in 100 years Set to Begin in Fargo," by Bob Reha. (Minnesota Public Radio June 26, 2006)
    North Dakota: "Rodriguez Case May Revive North Dakota Death Penalty Debate," by Dave Kolpack. (Bismark Tribune September 23, 2006)
    North Dakota: "Judge Imposes Death in Killing of North Dakota Student," by Libby Sander. (NYTimes February 9, 2007)
    North Dakota: "Religious Leaders Speak Against Capital Punishment," by Dirk Lammers. (Bismark Tribune August 22, 2006)
    North Dakota Death Penalty Photo Exhibit. (North Dakota Human Rights Coalition)
    Ohio: Capital Crimes Annual Report 2007. (Ohio Attorney General)
    Ohio: Searchable Database of All Death Penalty Appeals (Ohio Attorney General)
    Ohio: Death Row and Executed Inmates by name, race, age, county, and date of admission. (ODRC)
    Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction: Capital Punishment in Ohio.
    Ohio Death Penalty Timeline. (Ohioans to Stop Executions)
    Ohio State Survey Shows Ohioans Support Death Penalty 74% - 23%. (October 1999)
    Ohioans To Stop Executions.
    Ohio Death Penalty Information.
    OhioDeathRow.Com. (List of Current Death Row and Executed Inmates Since 1897)
    Ohio: League of Women Voters of the Cincinnati Area - The Death Penalty in Ohio.
    Ohio: "Abolishing the Death Penalty in Ohio." (United Churchof Christ)
    Ohio: Cleveland Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    "Ohio Federal District Judge Stripped of Death Penalty Cases." (Cincinnati Enquirer January 25, 2008)
    Ohio: "Adopted Man Finds Biological Father on Ohio's Death Row." (AP Columbus Dispatch May 1, 2008)
    Ohio: "Death Row Doubts: Tyrone Roling Denied Second Trial," by Andrea Simakis. (Cleveland.Com April 25, 2007)
    Ohio Clemency Petition: "An Appeal for the Life of Ken Biros." (Ohio Death Penalty Information January 2, 2007)
    Ohio: "Vrabel Becomes Second to Volunteer for Early Execution," by Mandy Zatynsky. (The Lantern May 26, 2004)
    Ohio: The Case For A Death Row Study Commission. (Univ Cincinnati College of Law 2003)
    "The Death Penalty in Ohio: Fairness, Reliability, and Justice at Risk," by S. Adele Shank. (Ohio State Law Journal 2002)
    "Ohio’s Death Penalty Statute: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly," by Joseph Wilhelm and Kelly Culshaw. (Ohio State Law Journal 2002)
    "Ohio’s Death Penalty History and Current Developments," by David L. Hoeffel. (Capital University Law Review 2003)
    "Ohio Death Penalty Assessment Report ." (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project September 2007)
    "Ohio Death Penalty Defended; Prosecutors Fight Study, Say System Works, by Alan Johnson. (Columbus Dispatch January 27, 2007)
    "Ohio Prosecutor Belittles Death Penalty Suit; Called Attack by Special Interests," by Jim Provance. (Toledo Blade November 28, 2007)
    Ohio Public Defender. (Capital Cases, Death Row, executions)
    Ohio Innocent (Kenny Richey) to Die! Time to Kill Off the Death Penalty. (Bobbie Isbell, Founder Acts Of Injustice)
    "Ohio’s Lethal Injection Execution Procedures Not Fit for a Dog." (Ohio Public Defender December 31, 2003)
    "Language and the Ohio Death Penalty Statute." (The Language Guy March 1, 2005)
    Oklahoma Department of Corrections: Death Row, Executions in Oklahoma.
    Oklahoma Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. (OCADP)
    Oklahoma Death Penalty Appeals Process: From Conviction to Execution. (OCADP)
    Oklahoma: Old Habits Die Hard: Report on the Death Penalty in Oklahoma. (Amnesty International April 26, 2001)
    Oklahoma: "Most Oklahomans Favor Death Penalty," by Bobby Ross, Jr. (Connect Oklahoma March 12, 2000)
    Oklahoma Murder/Death Penalty Jury Instructions. (Oklahoma State Courts Network)
    Oklahoma: "Death and Justice: An Expose of Oklahoma's Death Row Machine," by Mark Fuhrman. (Book Review, Preview 2004)
    "Oklahoma Doctors Condemn Lethal Injection Procedure." (Amnesty International USA August 8, 2006)
    "Oklahoma Rides the Roller Coaster with Death Penalty Laws," by Ziva Branstetter. (Tulsa World November 11, 2007)
    Oklahoma: "Death Penalty in Some Cases of Child Sex Is Widening," by Adam Liptak. (NYTimes June 10, 2006)
    Oklahoma: "Geography and the Machinery of Death ," by Adam Liptak. (NYTimes February 5, 2007)
    "Oklahoma Governor Approves Death Penalty for Repeat Child Molesters." (FoxNews June 09, 2006)
    "How Many More Are Innocent? Joyce Gilcrest Scandal Exposes Shoddy Police Work," by Alice Kim. (New Abolitionist 2001)
    Jesse Jackson Moratorium Letter to Governor Frank Keating. (The Ethical Spectacle February 2001)
    Oklahoma Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    The Death Penalty in Oregon. (Oregon Department of Correction)
    Capital Punishment in Oregon, from the Capital Punishment Handbook. (9th Circuit Court of Appeals)
    Oregon: "Dead Men Waiting on Oregon’s Death Row," by James Pitkin.(with photos) (Willamette Week January 23, 2008)
    Oregonians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.
    Oregon: "A Time to Kill - Reflections on the Oregon Death Penalty," by William R. Long. (Oregon State Bar April 2002)
    Oregon: "A Just Punishment," by Joshua Marquis. (Oregon State Bar May 2002)
    Oregon ACLU: Death Penalty.
    "The Oregon Death Penalty - 2007, An Encyclopedia Article," by Bill Long.
    Oregon Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    "Death Penalty: What Should Oregon Do?" by Chip Shields. (Blue Oregon December 14, 2007)
    "University of Oregon Uses Public Funds and Employees to Promote Repeal of Death Penalty." (Crime Victims United February 27, 2002)2007)
    Oregon: "The 1964 Death Penalty Referendum," by Hugo Adam Bedau." (Crime and Delinquency 1980)
    Oregon: Pro-Death Penalty Articles (2000-2008) from Josh Marquis, Clatsop County Prosecutor.
    Pennsylvania Department of Corrections: Death Penalty. (History, Death Row, Executions)
    Pennsylvania for Alternatives to the Death Penalty.
    "Pennsylvania Death Row Inmates Conduct Hunger Strike," by Alden Long. (August 5, 2000).
    Pennsylvania: "History & Statistics of the Death Penalty in PA," by Kimberly Powell.
    Pennsylvania: "Reforming the Appellate Process for Pennsylvania Capital Punishment," by Paul R. Teichert. (2005)
    Pennsylvania: "The Madness of Life on Pennsylvania's Death Row." (Salon Magazine, September 1998)
    Pennsylvania: "Mumia's Millions," by Joan Walsh. (Salon Magazine, July 10, 1999)
    Pennsylvania Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    Pennsylvania: "DNA Exonerates Nicholas Yarris From Death Row," by Cindi Lash. (Pittsburg Post December 10, 2003)
    Pennsylvania Supreme Court Committee on Racial and Gender Bias in the Justice System. (Chapter 6: Death Penalty 2003)
    "Pennsylvania Panel Advises Death Penalty Moratorium." (CNN March 4, 2003)
    "Race and the Death Penalty in Pennsylvania: Will Rendell Act? by David Lindorff. (Counterpunch March 8, 2003)
    "Pennsylvania Death Penalty Debate," by Allison Schlesinger. (CBSNews March 5, 2003)
    Pennsylvania: Short Report on Visit to Death Row by Cynthia Blumenthal.
    "Pennsylvania Committed to Death Penalty," by Emilie Lounsberry. (Philadelphia Inquirer January 1, 2008)
    "Pennsylvania Death Penalty Assessment Report ." (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project October 2007)
    Pennsylvania ACLU: The Death Penalty.
    Pennsylvania Moratorium Coalition.
    Pennsylvania: Philadelphia Inquirer Editorial Against the Death Penalty. (January 13, 2008)
    Pennsylvania District Attorney Newsletter: "Innocence and the Death Penalty," by Ronald Eisenberg.
    Pennsylvania: "No Signs that Pennsylvania Will Abolish Death Penalty." (Indiana Gazette January 1, 2008)
    "Pennsylvania Performs First Execution (Keith Zettlemoyer) in 33 Years." (Reuters News May 2, 1995)
    South Carolina Department of Corrections: Capital Punishment. (History, Death Row, Executions) South Carolina Equal Justice Alliance.
    South Carolina Moratorium Resolution. (SC Christian Action Council)
    South Carolina: "Racism is Alive and Well in the South Carolina Death House," by Wendy Brinker. (Counterpunch August 13, 2002)
    South Carolina: "The Effect of Race, Gender, and Location on Prosecutorial Decision. (SC Law Review Abstract 2006)
    South Carolina Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    "South Carolina Prosecutor Agrees to Drop Death Penalty to Get Suspect Back from Canada." (AP May 11, 2008)
    South Carolina Executions. (Wikipedia)
    Tennessee: "Execution in Tennessee," by Kathleen R. Merrill. (Jackson Sun Death Row Photos 2000)
    "Execution in Tennessee: Robert Glen Coe." (Jackson Sun April 2000)
    Tennessee: Capital Case Information and Filings. Executions List, Documents. (Tennessee Administrative Office of the Courts)
    "Tennessee Death Penalty Assessment Report ." (ABA Death Penalty Moratorium Implementation Project March 2007)
    Tennessee: Part 1-8 "Scenes from the Coe Execution," by John Shiffman. (The Tennessean September 24, 2000) (inactive link)
    Tennessee Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    Tennessee Capital Punishment Chronology. (Tennessee Department of Correction)
    Tennessee Coalition to Abolish State Killing. (TCASK)
    Tennessee: "Death Row Inmate (Philip Workman) Says He's Praying for Governor." (AP, November 6, 1998)
    Tennessee: "Doubt on Death Row: Phillip Workman," by Ashley Fantz. (Salon.Com September 14, 2000)
    Tennessee Department of Corrections. (Executed and Death Row Inmates, Procedures, History)
    Tennessee: "As Executions Approach, Anxieties Rise," by Jeff Woods. (Weekly Wire October 4, 1999)
    Tennessee's Death Penalty: Costs and Consequences. (Office of Comptroller July 2004)
    Tennessee: "Fairness of Death Penalty Panels Questioned," by John Gramlich. (Stateline.Org May 02, 2008)
    "Tennessee Death Penalty: A View From the Federal Bench," by Paula R. Voss. (TADCL Nov/Dec 2002)
    "Tennessee: "Death Row Lotto - Who Gets the Death Penalty is a Grim Game of Chance," by Sarah Kelley. (Nashville Scene February 28, 2008)
    "Tennessee Death Penalty Study Bill Passed." (The Justice Project June 22, 2007)
    "Tennessee: "Yet Another Study of Tennessee’s Death Penalty is Set to Begin," by Sarah Kelley. (Nashville Scene October 11, 2007)
    "Tennessee: "Evidence Suggesting Philip Workman Didn’t Fire Was Not Enough," by Sarah Kelley. (Nashville Scene May 17, 2007)
    "Tennessee Death Penalty Review May End; State's Prosecutors Say Panel Biased," by Chris Echegaray. The Tennesseean April 7, 2008)
    Tennessee: "Capital Punishment in Tennessee," with video comments by Dr. James Haney. (Flix55.Com February 11, 2008)
    "Tennessee Performs First Electric Chair Execution (Daryl Keith Holton) Since 1960. (Nashville City Paper September 13, 2007)
    Texas Department of Criminal Justice: Death Row History, Facts, Executions and Death Row.
    Texas: Board of Pardons and Paroles.
    "The Texas Clemency Memos," by Alan Berlow. (Atlantic Monthly July/August 2003)
    Texas: Dallas Morning News Editorial Against the Death Penalty. (April 16, 2007)
    Texas Executions 1976 - January 2001 from the Houston Chronicle (Detailed Table)
    Texas: "A Deadly Dinstinction." (Houston Chronicle February 12, 2008)
    "Why Texas is the Execution Capital," by Robert Bryce. (Christian Science Monitor, December 1998)
    "Why is Texas #1 in Executions?" by Ned Walpin. (PBS Frontline)
    Texas: Death Row Inmate Gets New Trial, Attorney General Missed Deadline. (Abeline News, November 8, 1997)
    Texas Execution Information Center. (Execution Reports 1999-2008)
    Texas Moratorium Network.
    Texas Students Against the Death Penalty.
    "Texas: The Death Factory," by Bob Herbert. (NYTimes October 2, 2000)
    Texas: "The Cantu Case - Did Texas Execute an Innocent Man? (Houston Chronicle July 24, 2006)
    Texas: "Killing Without Mercy - Clemency Procedures in Texas." (Amnesty International, June 1999)
    Texas: Outgoing Attorney General Says Death Penalty Biased. (Corpus Christi Times, December 21, 1998)
    Texas: "Shadow Figures: A Portrait of Life on Texas Death Row," by Suzanne Donovan. (Mother Jones Newswire, July 30, 1997)
    Texas Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty. (Texas Statistics, Links, Procedures, Law)
    Texas Defender Service Report Assails Texas Death Penalty, by Jim Yardley.(Seattle Post October 16, 2000)
    "Texas Death Row Peep Show, Proudly Listing Last Meals and Last Words," by Donna Ladd. (Salon.Com February 4, 2000)
    Texas: "Nothing is as Certain as the Pace of Executions in Bush's Texas," by Margaret Carlson. (CNN February 14, 2000)
    Texas and the Death Penalty: Welcome to Huntsville.
    Texas: Life and Death Row in Texas, a Photovoyage. (Washington Post January 2001) (inactive link)
    Texas Death Row Project: The Lamp of Hope. (USA Execution News Reports 1998-2004)
    Texas Criminal Defense Lawyers Association.
    The Coalition for the Celebration of the Enrichment of Texas Society Through State Capital Punishment Implementation.
    Texas Congressman Henry B. Gonzalez Anti-Death Penaty Remarks. (The Progress Report)
    Texas: Gary Graham and the Anti-Death Penalty Movement: A Case Study Of Lies. (Justice For All)
    "Texas Executes Graham for 1981 Murder Despite Pleas of Innocence." (CNN Online June 23, 2000)
    Texas: Gary Graham's Son Convicted of Murder. (Lubbock Online March 27, 2001)
    Texas: NPR Real Audio All Thiongs Considered - A Typical Execution Day in the City of Huntsville. (20 min.)
    Texas: George W. Bush, the U.S. Texecutioner.
    Texas Death Row Photos by Ken Light.
    Texas: "Inmate Says Texas Death Row Is a Living Hell," by Alan Elsner. (Reuters January 7, 2002)
    "Texas Death Row Hotel," by Richard Wayne Jones, Sr. (Lamp of Hope)
    "Texas Death Row Inmate Found in Louisiana, Drunk and Talking on Pay Phone." (Kandi's World AP November 7, 2005)
    "Texas: Blue Shelter - Providing Affordable Housing for Death Row Loved Ones.
    Texas: "Was Texas Death Row Mom Darlie Routier Wrongly Convicted?" (ABCNews July 3, 2002)
    "Texas Death Row Inmate Whose Lawyer Slept at Trial Gets New Trial." (NYTimes June 4, 2002)
    "Texas: "Putting a Human Face on Texas Death Row," by Lorrie J. Hopper. (2003)
    "Texas Death Row: Cruel and Unusual?" by Lily Hughes. (Lily Hughes's ZSpace Page October 27, 2006)
    "Texas: "A Visitor's Guide to Texas Death Row," by Gabi Uhl.
    Texas Death Penalty Abolition Movement.
    Texas Death Penalty Law Guide. (UT Austin Tarlton Law Library)
    Texas: "Sharpton, Glover Rail Against Texas Death Penalty," by Brad Wright. (CNN News June 9, 2000)
    Texas Death Penalty Blog. (Texas Students Against the Death Penalty)
    Texas Death Penalty and Resource Center.
    Death Penalty in Texas. (Gabi Uhl)
    Texas: "Supreme Court Sides with Texas in Dispute With Bush Over Mexican's Death Row Case." (FoxNews March 25, 2008)
    "Texas Death Row Escape: A Natural Response to Racism & Brutality," by Gloria Rubac. (1998)
    "Texas Death Row Escape: "Nabbed Killer Back in Texas; Death Row Inmate Extradited from Louisiana. (CNN Law Center November 8, 2005)
    Texas: "Indigent Defense in Capital Cases, 2nd Ed." (Texas Defender Service November 2003)
    Texas Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    Texas Capital Punishment Laws. (FindLaw)
    University of Texas at Austin, Capital Punishment Clinic, sponsored by the Capital Punishment Center at the Law School.
    Stand DownTexas Project, Blog and Articles Advocating a Moratorium.
    Texas Capital Punishment in Context: The Case of Gary Graham.
    "Texas Preacher Pushes the Gospel of Mercy for Death Row Inmates," by Michelle García. (AI Magazine December 17, 2007)
    "Utah and the Use of Firing Squads." (International Justice Project)
    Utah: "Just a Shot Away - Utah Fired Up for Executions," by Sean Carter. (Counterpunch May 30, 2003)
    Utah: "The Unforgiven - Utah's Excecuted Men (excerpts), by L. Kaye Gillespie. (1997)
    Utah Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    Utah Death Penalty Laws. (FindLaw)
    "Utah Could See Jump in Capital Punishment," by Brock Vergakis. (AP Daily Herald January 21, 2007)
    Utah Amnesty International: "Help End the Death Penalty in Utah." (January 20, 2007)
    Virginia Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    "Virginia Death Penalty System Riddled with Flaws, Recommends Sweeping Changes." (ACLU 2003)
    Atkins v. Virginia, 536 U.S. 304 (2002), from the Oyez Project, with audio.
    Virginia: "Lawyer Reveals Secret, Toppling Death Sentence," by Adam Liptak. (NYTimes January 19, 2008)
    Virginians for Alternatives to the Death Penalty. (Executed and Death Row Inmates)
    Virginians United Against Crime. (2004)
    "Former Virginia Attorney General Now Death Penalty Foe," by Carrie Johnson. (Richmond Times February 12, 2000)
    "Virginia Death Penalty Is Unequal, Unfair and Irreversible." (ACLU of Virginia December 2000)
    Virginia ACLU Report Claims Virginia Death Penalty Is Unequal, Unfair and Irreversible. (April 8, 2000)
    "Reforming the Virginia Death Penalty System," by Sam Sloan.
    "Miscarriages of Justice in Virginia - Prisoners Wrongfully Incarcerated," by Sam Sloan.
    "Virginia Death Penalty Assailed/Robertson Backs Moratorium," by Andrew Petkofsky. (Richmond Times April 8, 2000)
    Virginia: "DNA Testing Frees Virginia Death Row Inmate, Earl Washington, Jr." (CNN News February 11, 2001)
    Virginia: "Jury Awards $2 Million To Earl Washington, Wrongfully Convicted in Virginia. (NYTimes May 6, 2006)
    The Norfolk Four: Miscarriage of Justice - False Confessions.
    "Virginia Death Row Inmate (Jeffrey Remington) Commits Suicide," by Maria Glod. (Wash Post February 26, 2004)
    "Virginia Jury Recommends Death for Sniper Muhammad." (CNN Law Center November 25, 2003)
    "Virginia: Facing Death in Virginia - The Prosecution of the Juvenile DC Sniper," by Joanmarie Ilaria Davoli. (Jurist January 2, 2003)
    Virginia: "Review of Virginia's System of Capital Punishment." (Virginia General Assembly December 10, 2001)
    Virginia: "Review of Virginia's System of Capital Punishment." (The Justice Project December 10, 2001)
    Virginia: "JLARC Study Finds No Racial Bias in Virginia Death Penalty Sentencing." (University of Virginia Law 2002)
    Virginia Capital Case Clearinghouse, a Legal Clinic at Washington and Lee University School of Law.
    Washington Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    Washington Death Penalty Laws. (FindLaw)
    "The Death Penalty in Washington: Uncertain Justice." (Death Row, Executions, Photos) (Seatlle Post 2001)
    Washington: Status Report on the Death Penalty. (Justice Richard P. Guy March 2000)
    Washington State Department of Corrections: Capital Punishment. (Law, Death Row, Executions)
    Washington Coalition to Abolish the Death Penalty.
    "Washington State's Death Penalty System Fails," by Timothy Kaufman-Osborn. (ACLU of Washington September 29, 2000)
    Washington: "If Ridgway Got Life, Would Anyone Get Death?" by Natalie Singer. (Seattle Times January 31, 2007)
    Capital Punishment in Washington, from the Capital Punishment Handbook. (9th Circuit Court of Appeals)
    Washington: "Pierce County Known for Toughness in Capital Cases," by Lise Olsen. (Seattle Post November 1, 2000)
    Washington: "Death Appeals: Green River Killer Deal Leads to New Arguments," by Tracy Johnson. (Seattle Post January 17, 2004)
    Washington: "Exonerated From Washington Death Row, But Never Free," by Maureen O'Hagen. (Seattle Post March 31, 2003)
    Washington Death Penalty Assistance Center. (WDPAC)
    Western Washington Fellowship of Reconciliation.
    Washington: "The Death Penalty in Washington state," by Norman S. Hayner and John R. Cranor. (November 1952)
    "Washington State Carries Out its First Execution on May 6, 1904." (HistoryLink.org)
    "Washington Resumes the Death Penalty by Hanging Westley Allan Dodd on January 5, 1993." (HistoryLink.org)
    "Washington Let’s Kill the Death Penalty in Washington," by Ryan Morden. (University of Washington Daily January 17, 2008)
    West Virginia Capital Punishment History: "Thy Brother's Blood." by Bumgardner and Kreiser.(WV Historical Society March 1996)
    West Virginia Penetentiary Executions. (Moundsville, West Virginia Tours)
    West Virginia Capital Punishment. (Wikipedia)
    "West Virginia Capital Punishment Sought in Federal Murder Case," by Martin Staunton. (WOWK TV-13 May 1, 2007)
    West Virginia: "State Wants to Bring Death Penalty Back to West Virginia," by Melissa Reid. (State Journal February 26, 2005)
    Wisconsin: "Gruesome Execution in 1851 Helped End Death Penalty," by Dennis McCann. (Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel 03/24/98)
    Wisconsin: "Subject of State's Only Execution Gets Tribute," by Dave Cole. (Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel August 19, 2001)
    "A Brief History of Wisconsin's Death Penalty," by Alexander T. Pendleton & Blaine R. Renfert.
    "John McCaffary and the Abolition of Capital Punishment in Wisconsin: A Collection of Historical Accounts. (RootsWeb).
    Wisconsin Senator Russ Feingold's Anti-Death Penalty Press Release. (February 7, 2000)
    Wisconsin: Testimony of Waring R. Fincke Against Reinstatement of Death Penalty in Wisconsin.
    Wisconsin: "Death Penalty Sought for Terrorist Acts," by Dennis Chaptman. (Milwaukee Journal-Sentinel September 20, 2001)
    Wisconsin: Death Penalty Public Opinion. (St. Norbert College Survey Center April 7, 2000)
    Wisconsin: Death Penalty Public Opinion. (Univeristy of Wisconsin Survey Center Badger Poll July 17, 2006)
    Wisconsin Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    "Keep Wisconsin Death Penalty Free - Referendum on November 7, 2006." (Amnesty International 2006)
    Wisconsin: "Death Penalty on Wisconsin's Ballot." (LaCrosse Tribune May 17, 2006)
    "Wisconsin Should Have the Death Penalty," by John McAdams. (Wisconsin Interest Spring 2006)
    "Wisconsin and the Death Penalty: Highlights/Archives." (Wisconsin Historical Society November 1, 2006)
    "Wisconsin Death Penalty: Referendum Results." (CJLF 2006)
    "Wisconsin Voters Back Resuscitating Death Penalty 55%-45%; Referendum Only Advisory," by Brennan Nardi. (WISC-TV Channel 3000 November 8, 2006)

    Federal & U.S. Military Death Penalty

    Federal Death Penalty. (DPIC)
    Factsheet and history of the death penalty in the federal system, including summaries of recent changes.

    United States Military Death Penalty. (DPIC)

    Facts, overview, and racial disparities in the United States Military Death Penalty.

    Bureau of Justice Statistics: Capital Punishment 1993-2006.

    Yearly publication of the U.S. Department of Justice with detailed statistics and history of the death penalty in the U.S.; Federal laws providing for the death penalty; Method of Execution in the federal system; Number of federal and military executions and inmates held on current federal death row. (Availability of report lags approximately one year behind.)

    Federal Judicial Center Resources for Managing Death Penalty Trials and Habeas Corpus Review of Capital Convictions.

    Resource Guide for Managing Capital Cases, 59 pg, (2004); Forms for General Pretrial Orders, Appointment of Counsel, Orders appointing retained counsel, Order appointing second counsel, Notice of Intent to Seek the Death Penalty, Orders setting deadline for notice of intent, Orders appointing mitigation experts, Order appointing psychologist, Order appointing investigator, Sample case budget from Death Penalty Resource Counsel, Memorandum re interim payments for experts, Memorandum re counsel fees and expenses, Order of referral of cost management to magistrate judge, Order raising hourly rate for retained counsel, Order re funds for experts and consultants, Order reducing fees for non-death penalty case, Memoranda re: budget meeting with counsel, Order granting use of jury questionnaire, Sample juror questionnaires, Order to file joint proposed juror questionnaire, Descriptions of jury selection procedures, Introduction to voir dire and selection process, Script for jury voir dire, Order on motion for anonymous jury, Jury Instructions-Guilt Phase, Preliminary penalty-phase instructions, Penalty phase charges, Special-findings forms.

    Resource Guide for Managing Capital Cases. (Federal Judicial Judicial Center April 2004)

    Step by step handbook on the trial of a capital case in federal court, by Molly Treadway Johnson and Laural L. Hooper, published by the Federal Judicial Center.

    United States Attorneys Criminal Resource Manual: Capital Crimes 9-10:000. (June 2007)

    United States Department oif Justice Guidelines for U.S. Attorneys in filing and prosecuting a death penalty case in the federal courts, including plea bargaining and capital case review process.

    Death Penalty Legislation Pending in Congress. (2003)

    Copies of bills submitted to Congress in 2001 - 2003 relating to the death penalty, by the U.S. Department of State, International Information Programs, with links to other DP sites.

    "Death Penalty Support Dropping in Unied States, Growing in Europe." (June 7, 2002)

    Transcript of remarks delivered by Ambassador Stephan M. Minikes to the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), from the U.S. Department of State, International Information Programs.

    "Expansion of the Federal Death Penalty." (Capital Punishment in Context)

    Brief summary of recent changes and issues in the federal death penalty. Issues Highlighted by the Juan Garza Case; The Expansion of the Federal Death Penalty; Federal Death Penalty Procedures

    Capital Punishment: An Overview of Federal Death Penalty Statutes. (Congressional Research Service Updated January 5, 2005)

    Summary and overview of federal death penalty statutes following changes in the 1990's, by Elizabeth B. Bazan, Legislative Attorney for the American Law Division of the Congressional Research Service ,The Library of Congress. (Report for Congress, Received Through the CRS Web)

    "Federal Death Penalty Prosecutions Increasing," by TChris. (Talk Left January 15, 2007)

    'The Justice Department is out for blood in Brooklyn's federal courthouse, where three death penalty trials are underway. A fourth capital trial involving a triple-murder defendant has opened in Manhattan federal court as well."

    "Halls of Justice: Death Penalty for an Attempted Crime?," by Beverly Lumpkin. (ABCNews January 17, 2002)

    ABCNews Special Report on Federal Death Penalty procedures in an espionage case. And here are the two most significant facts about this case: Regan is charged only with attempted espionage; and yet the government is seeking the death penalty if he is convicted.

    Death Penalty Links from MegaLaw.Com. (200+)

    Outstanding collection of free links to Death Penalty / Capital Punishment Law: Court Decisions, U.S. Constitution, Federal Crimes Carrying the Death Penalty, Certain Federal Procedures for Capital Cases, United States Attorneys' Manual, Forms and Procedures, State Departments of Correction, Other Web Links.

    ""Protecting the Innocent: Ensuring Competent Counsel in Death Penalty Cases" (United States Senate June 17, 2001)

    Summary of proceedings before the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee considering bills by Chairman Orin Hatch of Utah and Ranking Minority member Patrick Leahy of Vermont. Also includes full written statements of all witnesses appearing before the Committee.

    Capital Defense Network.

    Online assistance for the federal capital defense lawyer, at trial, on appeal, or on habeas. Overview of federal death penalty statutes, brief bank, litigation guides, listing of legal research sites, summaries of death penalty opinions, upcoming training and seminars. Federal Death Penalty Resource Counsel Project (FDPRCP)

    Federal Death Penalty Cases: Recommendations on the Cost and Quality of Defense - U.S. Judicial Conference

    Recommendations prepared by the Judicial Conference of the United States, Committee on Defender Services, Subcommittee on Federal Death Penalty Cases, concerning the cost and quality of defense representation in federal death penalty cases. (May 1998) The recommendations in this report were adopted by the Judicial Conference of the United States on September 15, 1998.

    Executions of Federal Prisoners Since 1927. (Federal Defense Network) Executions of Federal Prisoners Since 1927. (Federal Bureau of Prisons)

    Complete list of prisoners executed by the federal government 1927-2001; Date, place and method of execution, Race, Offense, and Age of inmate.

    Lethal Injection: Federal Bureau of Prisons Execution Protocol. (April 6, 2001)

    Lethal Injection: Federal Bureau of Prisons Execution Protocol. (April 6, 2001)
    Copy of the official Execution Protocol Manual issued by the Bureau of Prisons.

    Special Confinement Unit Opens at USP Terre Haute. (Bureau of Prisons Press Release, July 13, 1999)

    Brief Press Release from the Federal Bureau of Prisons on the opening of the Special Unit at Terre Haute, Indiana, to "provide humane, safe, and secure confinement of male offenders who have been sentenced to death by the Federal courts.

    Photo of Federal Execution Chamber.

    Photo of Lethal Injection Execution Room and Gurney in the federal penetentiary at Terre Haute, Indiana.

    Federal Prison Bans In-Person Interviews With Death Row Inmates. (AP April 26, 2001)

    Article on new regulations at the Federal Prison in Terre Haute, banning in-person interviews with death row inmates and severely restricting telephone interviews. Inmate Paul Hammer filed a suit in response alleging a violation of his First Amendment rights. From the Freedom Forum.

    U.S. Death Penalty - United States Code.

    United States Code sections and case law dealing with the federal death penalty by the Tarlton Law Library at the University of Texas, Austin.

    U.S. Death Penalty - United States Code.

    Listing of all crimes authorizing the federal death penalty with links to full text of United States Code sections, from the Capital Defense Network.

    Department of Justice Survey of the Federal Death Penalty System, 1988-2000. (September 12, 2000)

    Survey/Study from the U.S. Department of Justice, showing the procedure and status of all federal death penalty cases and all federal death row inmates, concentrating on the DOJ screening process and apparent racial and ethnic disparities.

    "The Federal Death Penalty System: Supplementary Data." (Department of Justice June 6, 2001)

    Supplementary Data, Analysis and Revised Protocols for Capital Case Review - At the Direction of the Attorney General, supplementing the results of the initial report/survey published in September 2000. This new data rebuts and explains the conclusion of racial bias found in the previous report. The information gathered by the Department indicates that the cause of a disproportionate number of minorities charged and sentenced to death is not racial or ethnic bias, but the overrepresentation of minorities in the pool of potential federal capital cases, particulatly drug trafficking murders.

    "Race and the Decision to Seek the Death Penalty in Federal Cases," by Stephen P. Klein, Richard A. Berk, Laura J. Hickman. (2006)

    Rand Corporation study prepared for the National Institute of Justice. This study examined the relationship between the federal government’s decision to seek the death penalty in a case and that case’s characteristics, including the defendant’s and victim’s races.

    "Report to Judicial Conference Committee on Defense Services in Federal Death Penalty Cases. (1997)

    This report responds to judicial and congressional concerns about the cost of providing representation in federal death penalty cases. In May 1997 a Subcommittee on Federal Death Penalty Cases was appointed to study the judiciary's current approach to the appointment and compensation of counsel in these cases, its success in recruiting qualified attorneys, and the quality and cost of services provided. Norman Lefstein, Dean of the Indiana University School of Law at Indianapolis, was selected to serve as the Subcommittee's chief consultant.

    "Federal Prosecutors Widen Pursuit of Death Penalty as States Ease Off," by Christopher Conkey and Gary Fields. (Wall Street Journal February 3, 2007)

    "At a time when many states are backing away from capital punishment, the federal government is aggressively pursuing -- and winning -- more death sentences, including in jurisdictions that traditionally oppose them. On Tuesday, federal prosecutors in New York persuaded a jury to give a death sentence to Ronell Wilson."

    "Aversion to Death Penalty, but No Lack of Cases," by Alan Feuer. (NYTimes March 10, 2008)

    "According to records compiled by the Federal Death Penalty Resource Counsel Project, which coordinates the defense of capital punishment cases, federal prosecutors in New York State have asked juries to impose death sentences 19 times since 1988. In only one case did a jury rule for execution. Nationwide, federal prosecutors win death penalties about one-third of the time."

    "Complex Appeals Process Delays Federal Executions - McVeigh," by Terry Frieden. (CNN, 1997)

    CNN news article discussing the process of requesting the death penalty and executions in the federal system, noting the long delays since the last execution 34 years ago.

    Clemency Petition of Juan Raul Garza. (Capital Defense Network)

    Full text (101 pages) of "Memorandum in Support of Petition for Clemency and for Commutation of Sentence of Death to Sentence of Life Imprisonment Without Possibility of Release," filed by Juan Raul Garza to the President September 28, 2000.

    "The Death Squad: Who Decides Who Should Die?" by Sam Skolnik. (Legal Times, June 7, 1999)

    Reposted news article discussing the internal decision-making process of the U.S. Department of Justice, deciding in which cases a request for a death sentence should be filed.

    "An Overview of the Federal Death Penalty Process," by Dick Burr, David Bruck & Kevin McNally. (CapDefNet April 2008)

    Brief summary/overview of the federal death penalty since 1988, with statistics and statute citations.

    "The McVeigh Effect: Eclipsing the Truth About Federal Death Row," by Earl Ofari Hutchinson. (Salon.Com May 9, 2001)

    Short article noting that the media blitz over McVeigh has obscured the fact that most on Federal Death Row are black and Latino.

    "The Real Face of (Federal) Death Row," by Jim Oliphant. (Legal Times June 18, 2001)

    Short article emphasizing that McVeigh is the exception, not the rule, on federal death row. Most are victims of racial and geographic bias, which is being used by lawyers for Raul Graza as a basis for an application for clemency.

    "First Federal Execution in 37 Years Set for Nov. 15," by Terry Frieden. (CNN September 22, 2000)

    Short news article on the upcoming execution date for convicted murderer David Paul Hammer, who has repeatedly asked to be executed, and will be the first in the federal system since the reinstatement of the death penalty in 1976.

    "Racial Disparity on Federal Death Row," by William D. Matthewman. (NACDL The Champion June 1996)

    Short article on the racial inequities of the federal death penalty system, written by the defense attorney in a "drug kingpin" federal death penalty case that resulted in an acquittal. "This was the first federal death penalty case ever taken to trial in the state of Florida, and it was the first acquittal in any federal death penalty case in the country to date."

    "Reno Says She Finds No Basis for Moratorium on Federal Death Penalty," by Terry Frieden. (CNN September 12, 2000)

    Short news article on comments by Attorney General Janet Reno after calls for a moratorium on the federal death penalty and recent studies purporting to show bias an inequity.

    "Janet Reno's Fatal Decision on David Ronald Chandler." by Alan Berlow. (Salon.Com December 22, 2000)

    The attorney general must soon decide whether to try to save a possibly innocent man from the electric chair -- or leave the case for an incoming administration unlikely to do so. Does Attorney General Janet Reno really want to allow David Ronald Chandler to become the first person executed under federal law since 1963?

    Encyclopedia entry on Victor Feguer, the last federal inmate executed in the United States before Timothy McVeigh. (Wikipedia)

    "Victor Harry Feguer (1935 – March 15, 1963) was the last federal inmate executed in the United States before the moratorium on the death penalty following Furman v. Georgia, and the last person put to death in the state of Iowa. While at the time the news media paid little attention to Victor Feguer or his execution, Timothy McVeigh's execution sparked renewed media interest in Feguer."

    "Issues of Consistency; A Roundtable Discussion on the Role of the U.S. Attorney," by Robin Campbell. (Vera Institute 2002)

    Participants; Consistency: is it attainable?; Who prosecutes death penalty-eligible cases?; Deciding to seek the death penalty—or not; U.S. Attorneys and the Justice Department; Questions of racial/ethnic disparity; Final thoughts; Death penalty offenses. From the Vera Institute of Justice, a nonprofit organization that works closely with government to improve the services that people rely on for safety and justice.

    Race and Disposition of Federal Death Penalty Cases Sought by U.S. Attorneys. (Capital Defender Network)

    Two charts showing race of the defendant and dispositions of each federal death penalty case filed by U.S. Attorneys.

    "Death Penalty Fact Sheets: The Federal Death Penalty is Biased." (Amnesty International)

    Short policy statement of Amnesty International on the Federal Death Penalty.

    A Brief Intro to the Federal Death Penalty: History, Procedure, and What is Going On. (FootnoteTV)

    Short history of federal death penalty, procedures, statistics, listing of federal death row with short case summaries. (2004)

    "Federal Death Penalty Unconstitutional, Again; Making the Case for Life," by Chris Adams. (NACDL, December 2002)

    Opinion page from The Champion, a publication of the anti-death penalty advocate, National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers.

    "Federal Death Penalty Biased Against Whites." (UPI NewsMax June 7, 2001)

    Short article on the testimony of U.S. Attorney General John Ashcroft before the U.S. House Judiciary Committee shortly before the execution of Timothy McVeigh.

    "Ashcroft's Legacy on Federal Death Penalty in Doubt; Will Gonzales Loosen Grip?" by David Hechler. (National LJ December 6, 2004)

    "Will his effort to federalize the death penalty be viewed as a success? And will his presumed successor, Alberto Gonzales, carry on Ashcroft's aggressive approach, overruling prosecutors' decisions not to seek capital punishment a third of the time? "

    "Woman Gets Death Sentence in Fetus-Snatching Murder," by Bill Mears. (CNNNews April 4, 2008)

    "A woman convicted of murdering an expectant mother and kidnapping the baby from her womb received a federal death sentence. U.S. District Judge Gary Fenner handed down the sentence in Kansas City, Missouri, on Friday. Lisa Montgomery becomes only the third woman on federal death row."

    "A New York Judge Declares the Federal Death Penalty Unconstitutional." (Democracy Now! July 2, 2002)

    "The federal death penalty was declared unconstitutional Monday by a New York judge who said it creates “undue risk” of executing innocent people. U.S. District Judge Jed Rakoff is the first judge to declare the 1994 federal Death Penalty Act unconstitutional." Panel discussion with audio.

    "Fired Prosecutor Says Gonzales Pushed Death Penalty," by Amy Goldstein. (Washington Post June 28, 2007)

    "Paul K. Charlton, one of nine U.S. attorneys fired last year, told members of Congress yesterday that Attorney General Alberto R. Gonzales has been overzealous in ordering federal prosecutors to seek the death penalty, including in an Arizona murder case in which no body had been recovered."

    "Attorney General, Capital Punishment: Prosecutors and the Death Penalty," by Liliana Segura. (The Nation March 29, 2007)

    Conspiracy-minded article written by anti-death penalty activist. "As the scandal over the US Attorney purge intensifies, each day brings stark revelations. From intimidating phone calls made to prosecutors' homes to incriminating e-mails from the office of former White House counsel Harriet Miers, to the lurking shadow of Karl Rove."

    "Were US Attorneys Fired for Recommending Against the Death Penalty?" by Russ Feingold. (Counterpunch June 27, 2007)

    "And now, the Judiciary Committee's investigation into the Department of Justice's firing of a number of well-respected, experienced U.S. Attorneys has revealed the inappropriate politicization of some of the department's most important functions."

    "The Impact of Ring v. Arizona on Military Capital Sentencing," by Mark A. Visger. (Army Lawyer September 2005)

    "This article addresses whether Ring requires any changes to RCM 1004. Some changes are warranted as a policy matter in order to mirror changes in federal practice, but this article argues that Ring does not render the current treatment of capital aggravating factors unconstitutional." From BNet.

    "Dirty Details: Executing U.S. Soldiers During WW II," by J. Robert Lilly, Northern Kentucky University. (November 28, 1995)

    Scholarly paper examining the execution of U.S. soldiers during World War II. It describes the crimes, defendants and victims for 18 military executions that took place in England, 1943-1945.

    "Executing U.S. Soldiers in England, WWII: The Power of Command Influence and Sexual Racism," by J. Robert Lilly. (1995)

    Scholarly paper examining the execution of U.S. soldiers in England during World War II. It describes the purpose of the executions was to control a perceived danger: the socializing of African American troops with British females, and the possible explosive violence between caucasian and African American troops.

    "The Federal Death Penalty." (Amnesty International USA)

    Brief summary of federal and military death penalty.

    Death Penalty Legislation Pending in Congress. (U.S. Department of State 2001-03)

    Brief summary of legislation with links to death penalty reports, updated only through 2003.

    Innocence Protection Act of 2001: Minority Report of Judiciary Committee. (CJLF)

    Senate Bill 486, the badly misnamed "Innocence Protection Act," was voted out of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee on July 18, 2002. The reasons why this bill would do much more harm than good are described in a thorough report by the committee minority.

    Federal Defenders Annual Death Penalty Conference: “Presenting The Seamless Case” (2007)

    Agenda from Federal Defenders Annual Death Penalty Conference, held in Boise, Idaho on August 25, 2007: Registration; U.S. Supreme Court & Idaho Case Law Update; Percolating Mental Health Issues; Frontloading Mitigation; Capital Trial Motion Practice; Preserving and Protecting The Record; Neuroscience.

    "The Nizkor Project."

    Many volumes of documents, trial transcripts, and summaries relating to the International Military Tribunal trial of Nazi War Criminals at Nuremberg.

    "Nazi War Criminals in Britian."

    Special Report, including several articles, written by the staff of the Guardian Unlimited, the UK's most popular newspaper website.

    International

    Complete Listing of Abolitionist and Retentionist Countries. (Amnesty International 2008)
    The Death Penalty Worldwide, Listing Countries With or Without Death Penalty. (InfoPlease.Com 2007)
    Ratification of International Treaties (Amnesty International 2008)
    Death penalty: Worldwide Death Sentences and Executions in 2007. (Amnesty International 2008)
    "The Death Penalty Worldwide: Estimated Death Row Populations," by Mark Warren. (Human Rights Research Ontario)
    "Executions Around the World 2007." (DPIC)
    "Death Penalty Update, Here and Abroad," by John Gettings. (InfoPlease.Com April 2007)
    The Death Penalty: An International Perspective. (DPIC)
    U.S. Diplomatic Mission to Belgium: United States and the Death Penalty - A Dossier.
    USA: Failing the Future - Death Penalty Developments March 1998 - March 2000. (Amnesty International)
    "Capital Punishment Views among Canadian and U.S. College Students," by Lambert, et al. (International Journal July 2006)
    European Union: Abolition of the Death Penalty.
    World Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    Millions Urge Execution Ban to United Nations. (CBSNews December 18, 2000)
    "McVeigh Execution Denounced in Europe." (St. Petersburg Times June 11, 2001)
    Reprieve, providing legal representation and humanitarian assistance for those facing the death penalty.
    International Commission of Jurists.
    Amnesty International on Abolishing the Death Penalty. (Declaration of Stockholm 11 December, 1977)
    Tyburn Tree Homepage: Public Executions in Early Modern England.
    "Symbolism, Ideology, and Capital Punishment in the USA," by Rupa Reddy. (Westminster School of Law, London 2001)
    European Union: Death Penalty Law and Policy Overview.
    European Union: Policy and Action on the Death Penalty.
    U.S. Statement on Capital Punishment to Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. (U.S. Secretary of State 2001)
    "On Italy's Passionate Opposition to the Death Penalty," by Gayle Young. (CNN February 24, 2000)
    Human Rights Watch - World Report 2008.
    Death Watch International, helping to promote the worldwide campaign against the death penalty.
    "Pena De Morte," by Jerson Cesar Leão Alves. (Brazil)
    Guatemala: "Candidates Pledge to Revive Death Penalty," by Inés Benítez. (IPSNews October 1, 2007)
    Amnesty International - Australia.
    Capital Punishment in Australia. (Australia Institute of Criminology 1987)
    Austrailian Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    Ronald Joseph Ryan: Last Man Hanged in Austrailia.
    "South Africa: Capital Punishment, A Deterrent to Serious Crime" by Jamiatul Ulama. (Council of Muslim Theologians)
    Switzerland: Lifespark, a swiss organization against the death penalty.
    Capital Punishment - U.K.: THE Capital Punishment Resource Site.
    "More Relief than Regret - Europe's Death Penalty Elitism," by Jeff Jacoby. (Boston Globe January 3, 2007)
    "Japan Carries Out Executions in Near-Secrecy," by Howard W. French. (NY Times on the Web, December 20, 1999)
    "Death Row / Executions in the Philippenes," by Ron Gluckman. (with photos) (July 1999)
    "The Death Penalty and Due Process in Guatemala," by William Clark Harrell. (Center for Human Rights 1997)
    Canadian Coalition Against the Death Penalty.
    Canada: Bring Back Capital Punishment.
    Stop Capital Punishment Now! (Canada)
    British Columbia: Anti-Death Penalty Essay from the B.C. Civil Liberties Association.
    The United Nations: Universal Declaration of Human Rights. (December 10, 1948)
    United Nations Commission on Human Rights, 56th Session, Resolution on the Death Penalty. (April 2000)
    Capital Punishment in Singapore. (Wikipedia)
    "Hussein Executed with Fear in his Face." (CNNNews December 30, 2006)
    "Death By Hanging: What Saddam Faced," by Dan Childs. (ABCNews December 29, 2006
    "The Uncut Saddam Hussein Hanging Video," by Jeralyn. (Posted on December 30, 2006)
    Photos of 2006 Sadaam Hanging. (Matt Robinson Appalachian State University)
    "Seven Women Face Stoning in Iran," by Alison Langley. (IPSNews September 29, 2006)

    Foreign Nationals

    "Death Row Debate: Is International Treaty Obeyed?" by Charles Feldman. (CNN/AP, December 28, 1998)
    CNN/AP News article on the controversy surrounding the execution of non-U.S. citizens, who may have never been advised of their rights under the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.

    International Court of Justice Judgment Against the United States. (June 27, 2001)

    Press Release and Judgment of the International Court of Justice, holding the United States in violation of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, in the case of the execution of German Nationals, Karl and Walter LaGrand in Arizona.

    U.S. State Department Handbook for Law Enforcement on Consular Notification and Access. (January 1998)

    U.S. State Department Instructions for Federal, State, and Local Law Enforcement and Other Officials Regarding Foreign Nationals in the United States and the Rights of Consular Officials To Assist Them.

    Death Penalty Information Center: Foreign Nationals

    List of foreign nationals on Death Row, by name, state, nationality; List of foreign nationals executed in the U.S. since 1976; Summary of arguments against death penalty on grounds of failure to notify consulate pursuant to Vienna Convention on Consular Relations; News and Updates. (Information provided mainly by Mark Warren, Human Rights Research)

    "Rights Denied: Europeans on Death Row in the U.S. (Amnesty International July 2000)

    Amnesty International press release on the denial of rights to foreign nationals on death row. "In many of these cases, timely consular intervention could have meant the difference between life and death. The widespread - and ongoing - failure of US authorities to respect the rights of detained foreign nationals threatens to undermine the international rule of law."

    Foreign Nationals: The Death Penalty Violates International Law.

    Short summary of Amnesty International arguments against the execution of forien nationals in the U.S.

    "Foreign Nationals and the Death Penalty in the United States." (Mark Warren, Human Rights Research July 7, 2002)

    Foreign Nationals Currently on Death Row; Violation of the Rights of Foreign Nationals; Current Issues and News About Foreign Nationals.

    "Execution Raises Legal Fears for Americans Abroad," by Chris Kline. (CNN, April 16, 1998)

    CNN News article discussing the fears by Americans abroad of retaliation in response to the Virginia execution of a Paraguayan foreign national, Angel Francisco Breard.

    "Angel Francisco Breard: Paraguayan National Executed After Appeals Fail." (CNN News April 15, 1998)

    "A Paraguayan man who stabbed a woman to death was executed Tuesday night despite requests by Secretary of State Madeleine Albright and the World Court that the sentence be delayed."

    "The Death Penalty and the Rights of Foreign Nationals." (Amnesty International 2008)

    "Twenty-two foreign nationals have been executed in the United States since 1988. Virtually none had been informed, upon arrest, of their right to communicate with their consular representatives. In 16 of these cases, the consular notification issue was raised on appeal and dismissed, allowing the execution to proceed."

    "USA: Government Must Ensure Meaningful Judicial Review of Mexican Death Row Cases." (Amnesty International March 27, 2008)

    "Twenty-two foreign nationals have been executed in the United States since 1988. Virtually none had been informed, upon arrest, of their right to communicate with their consular representatives. In 16 of these cases, the consular notification issue was raised on appeal and dismissed, allowing the execution to proceed."

    "Mexican Nationals and the Texas Death Penalty." (International Justice Project)

    "Of the four foreign citizens executed in Texas over the past ten years, three were Mexicans: Ramon Montoya, executed March 25, 1993; Irineo Tristan Montoya, executed June 18, 1997 and Miguel Angel Flores, executed November 9, 2000. In each case, Texas police failed to inform them of their right to contact the Mexican consulate for assistance, as required under Article 36 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations."

    "Consular Notification and Assistance: A Guide for Defense Attorneys," by Mark Warren. (Human Rights Research)

    Obtaining Consular Assistance for Foreign Nationals Facing the Death Penalty; The Role of the Consul in Criminal Cases; Domestic Litigation of Article 36 Claims; Understanding the Sanchez-Llamas Decision; International Court Decisions; Enforcing Avena: the Medellin Case; Grounds for Relief: Case Studies; Article 36 Precedents and Bibliography; Additional Resources; Excerpts from the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations; Mandatory Notification Countries in the USA (Bilateral Agreements).

    "Foreign Nationals, Consular Rights, and the Death Penalty," by Mark Warren. (Human Rights Research)

    Obtaining Consular Assistance for Foreign Nationals Facing the Death Penalty; The Role of the Consul in Criminal Cases; Domestic Litigation of Article 36 Claims; Understanding the Sanchez-Llamas Decision; International Court Decisions; Enforcing Avena: the Medellin Case; Grounds for Relief: Case Studies; Article 36 Precedents and Bibliography; Additional Resources; Excerpts from the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations; Mandatory Notification Countries in the USA (Bilateral Agreements).

    "Foreign Nationals on Death Row. (Death Penalty Focus)

    What is a Foreign National?; What rights do Foreign National’s have and are they granted?; Reported Foreign Nationals Under Death Sentences in the U.S. as of May 24, 2006; Developments involving Foreign Nationals and the Death Penalty; Developments involving Foreign Nationals and the Death Penalty.

    "SCt Says Bush Overstepped Authority by Intervening in Mexican National's Case." (CNN News March 25, 2008)

    "In a defeat for the Bush administration, the Supreme Court ruled 6 to 3 Tuesday that President George W. Bush does not have the authority to force a state to reconsider a death penalty case, even if the conviction in that case violates an international court's ruling."

    "7 Mexican-born Texas Death Row Inmates Lose at Supreme Court." (Dallas Morning News AP March 31, 2008)

    "Seven Mexican-born inmates on Texas' death row lost their bids for appeal Monday before the U.S. Supreme Court, following the court's ruling last week that another Mexican-born inmate's case couldn't be reopened despite an order from President Bush."

    Recent Headlines

    Current Death Penalty News and Updates from Rick Halperin.
    New York Times: Articles on Capital Punishment.
    Current Death Penalty News from the Jurist Legal Education Network. (University of Pittsburgh).
    Current Death Penalty News Items from the New York State Defenders Association.
    Yahoo Full Coverage News: The Death Penalty. (News Stories, Magazine Articles, Links - Inactive through 2007)
    Death Penalty on Trial. (CourtTV Online)
    Talk Left: Death Penalty Daily Archives (June 18, 2002 to present).
    Amnesty International USA: Abolition News Flashes.
    Amnesty International Death Penalty Library (Recent Reports, News and Press Releases)
    Newsfeed of the latest death penalty headlines from the San Antonio Peace Center.
    "Executions Top the News, But for How Long?" by Karen Samples. (Cincinnati Enquirer, July 1, 1997)

    Miscellaneous

    "No Publicity Stunt: Woman Explains Love for Benetton Death Row Prisoner," by Bryan Robinson. (ABCNews January 19, 2001)
    "European Women Marry U.S. Death Row Inmates," by Alan Elsner. (Reuters 08/01/2002)
    "Queer on Death Row: Calvin Burdine," by Richard Goldstein. (The Village Voice March 13th, 2001)
    "Seventh Annual Thurgood Marshall Journalism Awards for Excellence in Coverage of DP." (DPIC Press Release July 16, 2003)
    Calendar: Executions on this Day in History, from ExecutedToday.Com.
    "Death Penalty Protesters Sentenced; Unrolled Banner In Front of Supreme Court Building," by Meg McEvoy. (NACDL July 8, 2007)



    Best 30 Death Penalty Websites (Top 1%)
    Pro-Death Penalty
    General Reference, Directories & Links
    Pro & Con: Articles, Essays, & Argument
    History of Capital Punishment
    Execution and Death Row Statistics
    Legal Research / Capital Defense
    Public Defenders
    Prosecuting Attorneys
    Pardon, Commutation, Clemency
    Religion and the Church
    Public Opinion
    Methods of Execution
    Botched Executions
    Medical Issues
    Jury Issues
    Future Dangerousness
    Life Without Parole
    DNA
    Wrongful Convictions - Innocence Issues
    False Confessions
    Eyewitness Identification
    Moratorium
    ABA DP Moratorium Implementation Project
    Liebman / Columbia University Study
    Politics and the Death Penalty
    Bush/McCain/Obama/Clinton on the Death Penalty
    Voices of Celebrities & Entertainers
    Notable Death Penalty Quotes
    Cruel and Unusual Punishment
    Ring / Apprendi - Judicial Override
    Habeas Corpus
    Mental Illness and the Death Penalty
    Juveniles and the Death Penalty
    Race and Class Bias
    Women and the Death Penalty
    Costs and Economics of the Death Penalty
    Deterrence and Incapacitation
    After Release from Death Row
    Execution by Consent / Waiver of Appeals
    Victim's Families
    Witnesses to the Execution
    McVeigh / Nichols - Oklahoma City Bombing
    Death Row Inmate Homepages / Memorials
    Karla Faye Tucker
    Mumia Abu-Jamal
    Dead Man Walking / Sister Helen Prejean
    Famous / Historical Death Penalty Trials
    Notorious Murderers, Serial Killers
    Death Penalty Humor & Curiosity
    Photos, Drawings, Music, Movies, and Art
    Indiana Death Penalty Sites
    Other States Death Penalty Sites
    Federal and U.S. Military Death Penalty
    International
    Foreign Nationals
    Recent Headlines
    Miscellaneous


    Home Page | Disclaimer | Office Overview | Clark County Indiana
    Clark County Courts | Adult Protective Services | Child Support Division
    Domestic Violence | Controlled Substances | Juvenile Crime
    Death Penalty | For Police Officers | Victim / Witness Services
    WWW Links | Contact Us | Search Our Site


    © 1998-2008 Office of the Clark County Prosecuting Attorney.
    3,076 Links May 1, 2008.
    Add URL, report dead links, suggestions, comments, contact Steve Stewart: prosatty@aye.net